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    People ‘shed’ coronavirus early, but most likely not infectious after recovery – STAT - March 10, 2020 by admin

    People who contract the novel coronavirus emit high amounts of virus very early on in their infection, according to a new study from Germany that helps to explain the rapid and efficient way in which the virus has spread around the world.

    At the same time, the study suggests that while people with mild infections can still test positive by throat swabs for days and even weeks after their illness, those who are only mildly sick are likely not still infectious by about 10 days after they start to experience symptoms.

    The study, by scientists in Berlin and Munich, is one of the first outside China to look at clinical data from patients who have been diagnosed with Covid-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, and one of the first to try to map when people infected with the virus can infect others.

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    It was published Monday on a preprint server, meaning it has not yet been peer-reviewed, but it could still provide key information that the public health response has been lacking.

    This is a very important contribution to understanding both the natural history of Covid-19 clinical disease as well as the public health implications of viral shedding, said Michael Osterholm, director of the University of Minnesotas Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Policy.

    The researchers monitored the viral shedding of nine people infected with the virus. In addition to tests looking for fragments of the viruss RNA, they also tried to grow viruses from sputum, blood, urine, and stool samples taken from the patients. The latter type of testing trying to grow viruses is critical in the quest to determine how people infect one another and how long an infected person poses a risk to others.

    Importantly, the scientists could not grow viruses from throat swabs or sputum specimens after day 8 of illness from people who had mild infections.

    Based on the present findings, early discharge with ensuing home isolation could be chosen for patients who are beyond day 10 of symptoms with less than 100,000 viral RNA copies per ml of sputum, the authors said, suggesting that at that point there is little residual risk of infectivity, based on cell culture.

    Public health officials and hospitals have been trying to make sense of patients who seem to have recovered from Covid-19 but who still test positive for the virus based in throat swabs and sputum samples. In some cases, people test positive for weeks after recovery, the World Health Organization has noted.

    Those tests are conducted using PCR polymerase chain reactionwhich looks for tiny sections of the RNA of the virus. That type of test can indicate whether a patient is still shedding viral debris, but cannot indicate whether the person is still infectious.

    The researchers found very high levels of virus emitted from the throat of patients from the earliest point in their illness when people are generally still going about their daily routines. Viral shedding dropped after day 5 in all but two of the patients, who had more serious illness. The two, who developed early signs of pneumonia, continued to shed high levels of virus from the throat until about day 10 or 11.

    This pattern of virus shedding is a marked departure from what was seen with the SARS coronavirus, which ignited an outbreak in 2002-2003. With that disease, peak shedding of virus occurred later, when the virus had moved into the deep lungs.

    Shedding from the upper airways early in infection makes for a virus that is much harder to contain. The scientists said at peak shedding, people with Covid-19 are emitting more than 1,000 times more virus than was emitted during peak shedding of SARS infection, a fact that likely explains the rapid spread of the virus. The SARS outbreak was contained after about 8,000 cases; the global count of confirmed Covid-19 cases has already topped 110,000.

    Osterholm said the data in the paper confirm what the spread of the disease has been signaling early and potentially highly efficient transmission of the virus occurs before clinical symptoms or in conjunction with the very first mild symptoms.

    The study also looked at whether people who have been infected shed infectious virus in their stool. The report of last months international mission to China co-led by the WHO and China said that in several case studies in China, viable virus had been recovered from stool but that isnt likely driving transmission of the virus.

    The German researchers found high levels of viral fragments in 13 stool samples from four patients in their study, but they were unable to grow virus from any of them. The paper noted, though, that all the patients had mild illness, and the fact that they could not find virus in their stool doesnt rule out that it could happen in other cases.

    Further studies should therefore address whether SARS-CoV-2 shed in stool is rendered non-infectious though contact with the gut environment, they wrote, adding that their findings suggest measures to try to stop spread of the virus should focus on respiratory tract transmission protecting others from the coughs and sneezes of people infected with the virus.

    Virus could not be grown from blood or urine samples taken from the patients, the authors reported.

    The study also noted that people who are infected begin to develop antibodies to the virus quickly, typically within six to 12 days. The rapid rise of antibodies may explain why about 80% of people infected with the virus do not develop severe disease.

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    People 'shed' coronavirus early, but most likely not infectious after recovery - STAT

    Jake Debrusk Sheds Light On Why He Believes Bruins Havent Peaked Yet – NESN - March 10, 2020 by admin

    The Boston Bruins are in the midst of an impressive season, but we havent seen the best of them yet at least according to Jake Debrusk.

    I dont think weve peaked this year, Debrusk said Monday, per the Bruins. We had a really good start obviously and weve kind of stayed more consistent I think than anything else and kind of found ways to win games, but I dont think weve peaked by any means.

    Boston currently leads the NHL with 98 points with a 43-14-12 record.

    The Bruins jumped out to an 11-1-2 start in the fall, which was motivated in part by coming up short in Game 7 of the 2019 Stanley Cup Final against the St. Louis Blues. And while that loss has continued to fuel players, the team also has tried to focus on the present season, rather than getting caught up in the past.

    I think, obviously, its something that you want to have as a motivational tool, but you dont really want to doubt yourself in any way. We were one game away last year and obviously we want to come back and finish the job as every team does in this league, Debrusk said. But personally, its just a matter of trying to build your game and peak at the right time.

    While Debrusk believes the Bruins have not peaked yet, the team certainly is getting close.

    Boston has had a number of players step up of late, like Charlie McAvoys huge game against the Tampa Bay Lightning and Patrice Bergeron notching his sixth 30-goal season of his career. The team has gone 14-4-0 since the All-Star Game and has just 13 games left to play in the regular season.

    Though, a key part to the Bruins success also will depend on the team staying healthy. Torey Krug and Brandon Carlo both will be out with upper-body injuries for Tuesday nights game against the Philadelphia Flyers. And, of course, Boston is taking precautionary measures amid growing concerns about the coronavirus, and even has tossed around the possibility of playing games in empty arenas something Bergeron feels would leave a big void without the fans.

    The Bruins will take on the Flyers on the road Tuesday at 7 p.m. ET on NESN.

    Thumbnail photo via Steve Mitchell/USA TODAY Sports Images

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    Jake Debrusk Sheds Light On Why He Believes Bruins Havent Peaked Yet - NESN

    Clemson geneticists’ collaborative research sheds light on ‘dark’ portion of genome – Clemson Newsstand - March 10, 2020 by admin

    CLEMSON, South Carolina Just as there is a mysterious dark matter that accounts for 85 percent of our universe, there is a dark portion of the human genome that has perplexed scientists for decades. A study published March 9, 2020, in Genome Research identifies new portions of the fruit fly genome that, until now, have been hidden in these dark, silent areas.

    The collaborative paper titled Gene Expression Networks in the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel is the culmination of years of research by Clemson University geneticists Trudy Mackay and Robert Anholt. Their groundbreaking findings could significantly advance sciences understanding of a number of genetic disorders.

    Robert Anholt (left) and Trudy Mackay in their lab at the Clemson Center for Human Genetics.Image Credit: Robert Bradley, College of Science

    The dark portion refers to the approximate 98 percent of the genome that doesnt appear to have any obvious function. Only 2 percent of the human genome codes for proteins, the building blocks of our bodies and the catalysts of the chemical reactions that allow us to thrive. Scientists have been puzzled by this notion since the 1970s when gene sequencing technologies were first developed, revealing the proportion of coding to noncoding regions of the genome.

    Genes are traditionally thought to be transcribed into RNAs, which are subsequently translated into proteins, as dictated by the central dogma of molecular biology. However, the entire assemblage of RNA transcripts in the genome, called the transcriptome, contains RNA species that appear to have some other function, apart from coding for proteins. Some have proposed that noncoding regions might contain regulatory regions that control gene expression and the structure of chromosomes, yet these hypotheses were difficult to study in past years as diagnostic technology was developing.

    Only in recent years, with the sequencing of the entire transcriptome complete, have we realized how many RNA species are actually present. So, that raises the whole new question: if they arent making the proteins the work horses of the cell then what are they doing? said Mackay, director of Clemson Universitys Center for Human Genetics (CHG), which is part of the College of Science.

    For Mackay and Anholt, also of the CHG, these human genetics questions can be probed by studying the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Because many genes are conserved between humans and fruit flies, findings revealed by analyzing the Drosophila genome can be extrapolated to human health and disease.

    Mackay and Anholts former postdoctoral researchers, Logan Everett and Wen Huang, led the charge on this latest research, which identified more than 4,500 new transcripts in Drosophila that have never been uncovered before. Referred to by the researchers as novel transcribed regions, these 4,500 transcripts consist primarily of noncoding RNAs that appear to be involved in regulating networks of genes and that could contribute to genetic disorders.

    Most disease-causing mutations are known to occur in the protein-coding portion of the genome, known as the exome, but when youre only sequencing the exome, you miss other disease-related factors in other parts of the genome, such as these long noncoding RNAs, said Anholt, Provosts Distinguished Professor of Genetics and Biochemistry at Clemson University. Now that the cost of whole genome sequencing has gone down considerably, and we have the capability of sequencing whole genomes rapidly, we can look at elements of the genome that have traditionally been considered unimportant, and we can identify among them potential disease-causing elements that have never been seen before.

    By probing several hundred inbred Drosophila fly lines, each containing individuals that are virtually genetically identical, the researchers discovered that many of the novel long noncoding RNAs regulate genes in heterochromatin, a tightly packed form of DNA in the genome that is usually considered silent. Because heterochromatin is so condensed, it was thought to be inaccessible to the molecular machinery that transcribes DNA into RNA. Thus, any genes contained within heterochromatin are kept off, silent and unexpressed or are they?

    What we think is that the repression of gene expression in heterochromatin is somewhat leaky, and that there is variation in how those genes are repressed, Mackay said. The network of RNAs weve discovered may have to do with actually regulating chromatin state.

    These noncoding RNAs may play an important role in opening up such regions of the genome for expression of genes in a way that varies among different individuals depending on their genetic background, Anholt added.

    Trudy Mackay and Robert Anholt address human genetics questions by studying the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, because many genes are conserved between humans and fruit flies, meaning research results can be extrapolated to human health and disease.Image Credit: College of Science

    Another outcome of the study is the expression of jumping genes, known as transposons, that are pieces of DNA able to move around the genome. As transposons cut and paste into other genes, they may cause genome instability that leads to cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and other diseases. These transposons were also located in heterochromatin, but the identification of transcripts of these transposons shows that they are actually being expressed, despite residing in a usually silent portion of the genome. Identifying regulators of transposable elements, as the researchers found among these 4,500 novel transcribed regions, could prove useful in treating disorders that stem from transposon interference.

    Overall, the study lends toward a greater understanding of gene regulatory networks that contribute to human health and disease.

    These observations open up an entirely new area of biology that hasnt been explored and has unlimited potential for future follow-up, Anholt said.

    The teams own follow-up studies are using CRISPR gene editing technology to uncover what happens when genes revealed by this study are altered or deleted from the Drosophila genome. If the expression of other genes is altered by knocking one out, important conclusions can be drawn about the role that deleted gene plays in development or progression of disease.

    Everett, one of the lead authors on the Genome Research publication, is now a bioinformatics scientist at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Wen Huang is an assistant professor in the Department of Animal Science at Michigan State University.

    ###

    The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health under grant numbers R01-AA016560, R01-AG043490 and U01- DA041613. Additional support was provided by The Danish Council for Strategic Research. The researchers are wholly responsible for the content of this study, of which the funders had no input.

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    Clemson geneticists' collaborative research sheds light on 'dark' portion of genome - Clemson Newsstand

    Agrilife gardening seminar sheds light on turf, trees and tomatoes – Runnels County Register - March 10, 2020 by admin

    The Tom Green County Agrilife Extension office held their annual gardening seminar at the Tom Green County 4H facility on Saturday, February 29th. The seminar was named, Turf, Trees and Tomatoes, the Three Ts of Texas Horticulture. Hosting the event was the Tom Green County Texas A&M Agrilife Extension Service office. Allison Watkins, the horticulturist for the Tom Green County Agrilife Extension office was the hostess for the Extension Office.

    Along with Watkins, 2 other Agrilife agents made presentations; Dr. Russ Wallace, Professor and Extension Vegetable Specialist Department of Horticultural Sciences

    Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center in Lubbock and Dr. Chrissie Segars, Assistant Professor and Extension Turfgrass Specialist, from the Agrilife Department of Soil and Crop Sciences in Dallas.

    Agrilife spared no expense or experience for the seminar, with Wallace coming in from Lubbock and Segars from Dallas. Wallace is a highly respected professor and researcher with his Ph.D in Vegetable Crops from Cornell University. Wallaces territory for Agrilife covers the Texas High Plains and Panhandle regions.

    Segars earned her Ph.D in Crop sciences from Oklahoma State University and is the go-to person when it comes to turf grass. Her interests include Turfgrass Management, Turfgrass Physiology, Athletic Field Management and Player Safety as well as Reducing Inputs in Turfgrass Management.

    There isnt much that Watkins doesnt know about trees and she, as well as Segars and Wallace, covered an extensive amount of information in an easily understandable and gardener-friendly manner. The presenters answered technical questions about chemicals and mixes as well as less-detailed questions such as, What grass do I plant in the shade? Every question was important and the presenters encouraged participation. The time limits for each class werent enforced, which allowed everyone time to ask all of the questions that they wanted to.

    The seminar, as promised, offered everything anyone could want when it came to turf, trees and tomatoes.

    Watkins started off the day with her presentation on, Tree Selection and Establishment. Watkins began with several quotes about trees, including one from Alexander Smith, A man doesnt plant a tree for himself. He plants it for posterity. Watkins then delved into the topic of trees. She went over tree selection and establishment such as selecting native trees or adapted trees and consider mature size. Watkins also covered selecting a site, or rather, a tree, Select a tree for the site, not a site for the tree. She also covered the subject of purchasing trees; Dont buy root bound trees; Select trees with good form; The biggest tree is not always the best; as well as Inspecting for girdling roots and double leaders, Watkins pointed out that only the outer ring of a tree will take up the water. She talked about transplant shock, Smaller trees will go through less transplant shock than larger tree, and discussed handling of trees, Always handle a tree by the root ball and not by the trunk. She covered Oak Wilt as well, with one bit of information centering on how the disease is transmitted. Buying infect oak firewood from other places and bringing it here can spread Oak Wilt. You can find out further information on Oak Wilt at http://www.TexasOakWilt.org.

    The remainder of Watkins class covered prepping the site for your tree, planting the tree and protecting the tree. Watkins also said that that staking a tree should only be done as a last resort. Her presentation, as well as the presentations from Wallace and Segars included slides with photos of the dos and donts.

    Watkins also gave out information on recommended trees for this specific area of the state, which included; Texas Redbud; Mexican Redbud; Oklahoma Redbud; Mexican Buckeye; Chisos Rosewood; Mexican Paloverde; Evergreen Sumac; Western Soapberry as well as many more species that she said do well here with the proper care.

    The next class was Growing Tomatoes, and was taught by Wallace. It seems that growing tomatoes is woven into the DNA of every Texas gardener and it was a hot topic at the seminar. Wallace is not only the Extension Agent Vegetable Specialist, hes also a tomato judge at the fair in Lubbock and in the Panhandle. Wallace grows tomatoes for Texas A&M Agrilife at their facility in Lubbock and is a master of the red fruit that is the subject of so much frustration one year and pride the next year for Texas gardeners. Yes, tomatoes are fruits but theyre considered vegetables by nutritionists.

    The subject of tomatoes went well beyond the 60 minutes that was schedule for the topic, but the subject never bogged down or hit a lull. There was a great deal of conversation and numerous questions about growing tomatoes. Some of the information put out by Wallace included: Tomatoes are a tropical fruit; they like an average temperature of 70-80 degrees; they dont tolerate freezes; they like a pH of 5.5 7.3; they dont like salinity (some fertilizers contain salt and tomatoes dont like it); they prefer consistent moisture and dont like to be waterlogged; they prefer starter fertilizer; they respond best if regularly fertilized with small amounts throughout the season. Wallace said that Miracle Grow is a good fertilizer, especially starter solutions. Miracle Grow is made in Ballinger at Buddys Plant Plus.

    Wallace said that drip-irrigations systems worked best for growing tomatoes and stressed the importance of keeping them regularly fertilized and watered uniformly throughout the season.

    Wallace also covered the selection of tomato varieties. Some of the varieties covered were Phoenix, Shady Lady, Solar Fire, Sun King, Celebrity, Classy Lady, Sun Master and BHN 444. The pros and cons of each variety were discussed in depth, as well as their resistance to various diseases and pests such as Verticillum Wilt (V), Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV), Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Variety (TYLCV), Fusarium (F), Nematode (N), Tobacco Mosaic (T), Alternaria Stem Canker (A) and Stemphylium solani (S), which also known as Gray Leaf Spot.

    Wallace covered how to identify problems in your tomato plants, such as iron deficiency, which can be spotted by a yellowing/bleaching of leaves. Iron deficiency is common to soils with high pH and salinity; Physiological Heat Roll was also discussed. Physiological Heat Roll is caused by heat stress. He also spoke about how to address issues such as Physiological Heat Roll: Use shade cloth to protect them from the sun; cool down the plant with a spray bottle of water. Wallace said that irrigating your tomatoes more will not help. Perhaps the most concerning, at least to Texas gardeners, is that tomato flowers will pop off when they hit 92 - 93. Giving them protection from scalding afternoon sun is critical when our temperatures get into the high 90s and 100s.

    Segars covered the subjects of, Turf Irrigation, and Hot Topics in Turf. Segars said that good turf grass can help in several ways, It can absorb pollutants, heat, noise, dust and it can prevent soil erosion. She said that the primary selection criteria should revolve around heat/drought tolerance, irrigation requirements, traffic tolerance, desired use and the time of year the turf is most used. Anyone who has endured a west Texas summer knows the frustration of watching your lawn turn brown in July when water restrictions set in and you can only water your yard once a week while temperatures bake it at 100.

    When it comes to native grasses and drought-resistant grasses, Segars said that Buffalo Grass is the only native turf grass in the USA. She said that Buffalo Grass and Bermuda grass are the most drought-resistant grasses and the Zoysia grass thrives in filtered shade. St. Augustine is another good grass for shady areas. Buffalo Grass is the most cold-tolerant grass. According to Segars, the downside to Zoysia is that it is a slow-growing grass. All of the grasses and varieties of each grass were covered during the class, along with how to care for them and how to build a great lawn, even in drought conditions.

    If youd like more information on the material covered in the classes or have questions about horticulture, you can email Watkins at aewatkins@ag.tamu.edu or call her at (325) 659-6528.

    If you would like more information or have questions about growing tomatoes, or vegetable gardens in general, you can email Wallace at: rwwallace@ag.tamu.edu or call him at the Lubbock Agrilife Extension office at (806) 746-4057.

    For questions about grasses, Segars can be reached at Chrissie.Segars@ag.tamu.edu or follow her on Twitter: Hairyligule21. The phone number to the Agrilife Dallas office is (972) 952-9212.

    The annual Concho Valley Master Gardeners plant sale is on April 4th, from 8 a.m. until noon (or sold out, whichever comes first). Last year over 4,500 plants were sold. The event is wildly popular and most plants are sold out within 1-2 hours of the doors opening. The event is at the Tom Green County 4H facility and its best to get there 30 minutes to an hour early to get in line.

    In September the 9th Annual Fall Landscaping Symposium will be held at the Tom Green County 4H facility.

    You can find out more information, as well as Allison Watkins horticulture updates, soil testing and Earthkind Landscaping at http://www.txmg.org/conchovalley.

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    Agrilife gardening seminar sheds light on turf, trees and tomatoes - Runnels County Register

    NYC Vegan Play Sheds Light on the Cruelty of Family Separation For Animals and Humans – VegNews - March 10, 2020 by admin

    The world premiere of A Barn Playa play that explores animal rights and family separationtakes place on March 18 and the show will run until April 4 in New York City. A Barn Play shares the story of seven farm animals who are rehearsing for their own play. The rehearsal is disrupted when a cow and pig have to explain to a sheep that their little ones, whove been taken away by a farmer, are not coming back. The hour-and-a-half long play sheds light on the animal farming industrys practices of taking away animals babies while providing a parallel look at the countrys current immigration issue involving human children being separated from their parents. I always look for something that Id never seen before, and A Barn Play certainly fits that description, Artistic Director James Bosley said. But aside from its uniqueness, I was drawn to the subversive way it approaches the issues of animal rights, and of family separation which, for our Northern Manhattan community, is an extremely urgent concern. A Barn Play is produced by the UP Theater Company and takes place at the Good Shepherd/Inwood Academy Space in the Inwood neighborhood of NYC.

    Want more of todays best plant-based news, recipes, and lifestyle?Get our award-winning magazine!

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    NYC Vegan Play Sheds Light on the Cruelty of Family Separation For Animals and Humans - VegNews

    Black Monday for commodities across the board as crude sheds 31% – Business Standard - March 10, 2020 by admin

    Crude oil remained stuck in the lower circuit this morning, shedding as much as 30 per cent in the first two hours of trading on the Multi-Commodity Exchange. The meltdown in crude had a trickle-down effect on gold, silver and base metals.

    The fall was triggered by the crash in global crude following the price war between Russia and Saudi Arabia. Brent fell to $31 a barrel in the morning, down over 30 per cent from Fridays close after Russia backtracked from the Opec production deal and instead increased production further to make US shale oil production unviable.

    This led to a price war with Saudi Arabia also raising production and lowering the price, causing panic across markets and asset classes, and a rush to meet losses in derivatives of all assets including equities, debt, currency and commodities. The Indian commodity derivatives market is price taker in major commodities like precious metals and energy, apart from base metals.

    As a result many players who had gone long on crude oil had to pay additional margins beyond the 20 per cent they had paid earlier, under MCX's dynamic margin structure. Globally too, there was a sell-off across the board to meet losses in crude oil and equities.

    Said Ajay Kedia, Kedia Advisory, Mumbai: Today is a Black Day for the financial market as we have seen a horrific fall in equities, commodities, and currencies after Crude oil plunged more than 25 per cent in one of the biggest one-day falls since the Gulf War of the early 1990s. Investors are literally bracing for a race to the bottom, as an all-out Opec price war erupts between Saudi Arabia and Russia.

    With an extra oil output of up to 3.1 million barrel per day pouring into a slowing global economy that is now also having to deal with the coronavirus pandemic, Kedia said, It will be rough sledding for the oil sector going forward. The price crash came at a difficult time for US shale, and has posed a conundrum for President Donald Trump. Lower oil prices are an important part of his pitch to voters, and he has frequently calling on Opec to bring them down. But a prolonged price fall could spell economic trouble for energy-producing states such as Texas and North Dakota.

    In MCX futures, crude oil was down 29 per cent in the afternoon, recovering over 4 per cent from the day's low. All metals were down with aluminium shedding 1.5 per cent, Nickel 3.8 per cent and copper and zinc 2.5 per cent and 4 per cent respectively. Agro commodities were also were impacted.

    Anuj Gupta, Deputy Vice president-Research, Angel Broking said, Today's fall in crude oil prices may also impact other commodities like metals and farm commodities. All commodity segments corrected drastically. In general, crude is the primary driver for global growth. Fall in crude oil prices at a time when several countries are struggling to take on the spread of the coronavirus has created an emergency situation and fear of global economic growth slowdown.

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    Black Monday for commodities across the board as crude sheds 31% - Business Standard

    Study sheds light on the roots of moral stigma against consensual non-monogamy – PsyPost - March 10, 2020 by admin

    People in consensually non-monogamous relationships tend be more willing to take risks, have less aversion to germs, and exhibit a greater interest in short-term mating compared to those in monogamous relationships, according to new research published in Frontiers in Psychology. The findings may help explain why consensual non-monogamy is often the target of moral condemnation.

    Consensual non-monogamy (CNM) is an increasingly popular romantic relationship practice in societies historically predominated by monogamy. CNM refers to any romantic relationship where people form consensually non-exclusive romantic or sexual partnerships, said lead researcher Justin K. Mogilski of the University of South Carolina Salkehatchie.

    Research documents that those who pursue CNM are the target of significantly greater moral condemnation than those in monogamous relationships. However, peoples perceptions of CNM tend to be discordant with its actual practices and outcomes. For example, CNM individuals are presumed to have worse sexual health than monogamous individuals yet report similar or better sexual health practices compared to those in monogamous relationships.

    They also report unique benefits from forming multiple intimate relationships such as diversified need fulfillment, more frequent social opportunities, and more fluid sexual expression. And these benefits are associated with relatively greater relationship satisfaction, particularly when an individuals personality is matched to their relationship structure (e.g., when someone with greater interest in casual sex pursues CNM), Mogilski told PsyPost.

    We became interested in this topic to address why these negative beliefs about CNM exist despite evidence to the contrary. In our study, my colleagues and I tested a novel explanation for why moral stigma against CNM exists: individuals who habitually form multiple romantic or sexual partnerships may be predisposed to engage in riskier, more competitive behaviors that strain social cooperation.

    People may therefore condemn these relationships because they think doing so prevents personal and public health risks. That is, if people are discouraged from forming multiple concurrent romantic relationships, this may prevent violent competition for romantic partners, domestic abuse due to infidelity, partner abandonment, child neglect, and disease transmission, Mogilski said.

    The researchers surveyed 783 individuals who were currently in a romantic relationship of some type. Most of the participants were in a monogamous relationship, but 149 were in a multi-partnerrelationship and 96 were in an open relationship. After filling out a demographic questionnaire, the participants completed assessments of life history, pubertal development, attitudes towards uncommitted sex, perceived vulnerability to disease, and risk-taking.

    In our study, we collected data that showed that people within CNM relationships tend to be willing to take more social and ethical risks, are less averse to germs, and are more interested in short-term romantic relationships (and less interested in long-term, committed relationships) than those in monogamous relationships, Mogilski told PsyPost.

    These predispositions are known as a fast life history strategy. According to life history theory, early life experiences can shape an individuals behavior toward relationships and life in general. Those faced with unpredictable childhoods develop a fast life strategy that emphasizes insecure attachments, immediate gratification, and risky behaviors. Those with a more stable childhood, on the other hand, develop a slow life strategy that emphasizes long-term goals, greater investments, and reduced aggression.

    This presents a paradox: those who seek out CNM relationships appear to be predisposed to take risks, pursue short-lived romantic relationships, and disregard disease. Yet, in practice, they avoid this, Mogilski explained.

    To resolve this paradox, we propose a model in our paper explaining how modern CNM communities regulate negative outcomes within multi-partner relationships. Most modern CNM communities have well-developed guidelines for pursuing non-exclusive relationships safely and ethically. These guidelines, including effective birth control, open communication and honesty, and consent-seeking, may help manage and diminish the risks common to competitive, promiscuous mating environments.

    In other words CNMs culture of compassionate sexual ethics may help risk-prone people pursue multi-partner mating in a manner that doesnt endanger other peoples physical or mental health, Mogilski said.

    The researchers emphasized that the findings should not be mistaken as a justification of the condemnation of consensual non-monogamy. In fact, they hope the research will help to reduce the moral stigma surrounding the topic.

    Our data highlight how those with a proclivity toward CNM may possess personality traits that predispose them to take risks, pursue multi-partner mating, and disregard pathogens. CNM practices may therefore not foster these traits, but rather provide an environment where people can ethically express them, Mogilski said.

    If this is true, CNM may improve, rather than threaten, cooperation and well-being within certain communities a feature that should be valued by those who fear how public acceptance of CNM might affect social order or the stability of romantic relationships.

    But it can also be practiced in a way that produces social disharmony. The researchers hope that future research will uncover the strategies that CNM practitioners use to manage multi-partner relationships, and how those strategies are related to personal and relationship outcomes.

    Though there are plenty of popular resources for people who wish to ethically practice multi-partner mating, there is currently no comprehensive, scientific study of these practices. It would strengthen our hypothesis to show that those who pursue multi-partner mating in a relatively more ethical way tend to experience more positive relationship outcomes from doing so. Stay tuned this research is currently underway, Mogilski said.

    The study, Life History and Multi-Partner Mating: A Novel Explanation for Moral Stigma Against Consensual Non-monogamy, was authored by Justin K. Mogilski, Virginia E. Mitchell, Simon D. Reeve, Sarah H. Donaldson, Sylis C. A. Nicolas and Lisa L. M. Welling.

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    Study sheds light on the roots of moral stigma against consensual non-monogamy - PsyPost

    Norwegian cancels 3,000 flights and sheds staff – The Telegraph - March 10, 2020 by admin

    Norwegianis cancelling about 3,000 flights until mid-June following a decline in demand from the coronavirus outbreak.

    That is about 15pc of the airline's total capacity for this period.

    The company has also put several other measures in place, including temporary layoffs of a "significant share of its workforce".

    Affected customers will be informed about cancellations.

    Chief executiveJacob Schram said:Unfortunately, cancellations will affect a significant share of our colleagues at Norwegian. We have initiated formal consultations with our unions regarding temporary layoffs for flying crew members as well as employees on the ground and in the offices."

    He added:This is a critical time for the aviation industry, including us at Norwegian. We encourage the authorities to immediately implement measures to imminently reduce the financial burden on the airlines in order to protect crucial infrastructure and jobs.

    The Telegraph reported on Sunday that Arrowstreet Capital, a $106bn (81bn) hedge fund launched by UK-born Harvard professor John Campbell, is among investors betting Norwegian will be thenext airline to fail.

    Several airlines have slashed capacity to and from Italy in the wake of the nationwide lockdown announced on Monday.

    Ryanair will suspend all flights until April 8, while British Airways has also stopped flying to Italy.

    EasyJet continues to operate a small number of flights to the country.

    Continued here:
    Norwegian cancels 3,000 flights and sheds staff - The Telegraph

    Review: What the Constitution Means to Me Sheds Light on the Penumbra of Law and the Lives of Women – thirdcoastreview.com - March 10, 2020 by admin

    Maria Dizzia as Heidi.Photo by Joan Marcus.

    What the Constitution Means to Me is partly a lesson in the glories of the 14th Amendment and partly the personal story of domestic abuse against women by the men in playwright Heidi Schrecks family. The victims were her female relativesstarting with her great-great grandmother.

    Schreck created her stage personaa lively, mostly solo performanceoff Broadway and continued it in the highly successful six-month Broadway run last year. Maria Dizzia recreates Heidi successfully in the production now on stage at the Broadway Playhouse, presented by Broadway in Chicago. Its a heartfelt and informative show, with moments of laughter and sorrow as Schreck/Dizzia relives her years as a teenaged debater. The story moves briskly, hopping back and forth from landscape to minutiae at a madcap pace. Oliver Butler, who directed the earlier iterations, directs the traveling production.

    Heidi tells her personal story in fragments throughout the evening. Her great-great grandfather bought her great-great grandmother from a catalog, and brought her here from Germany to become his wife. She was 19, suffered spousal abuse, and by 36, she died from melancholy. Heidi feels some survivors guilt about this. And she has had to come to terms with the fact that the Constitution has failed to protect her family members from intimate partner violence over the decades.

    Heidi performs both as her present-day self and as 15-year-old Heidi as she views Constitutional issues such as immigration, reproductive rights and what it means to be an American citizen. Mike Iveson plays the WWII veteran/Legion member moderating the debate and becomes himself later in the play, with comments on sexuality and masculinity. A teenaged debater appears in later scenes, putting a youthful spin on todays issues. Jocelyn Shek, who performed on opening night, alternates with Rosdely Ciprian, a veteran of the Broadway run.

    Maria Dizzia and Mike Iveson, foreground. Photo by Joan Marcus.

    Heidi tells how she came to love the Constitution and especially the Ninth Amendment, as a teenager in Wenatchee, Washington. She entered the local American Legion debate tournament on the subject of What the Constitution Means to Me. (Her speech was titled Casting Spells: The Crucible of the Constitution.) Cash prizes were involved and as she progressed through more Legion competitions, she was able to earn enough money to pay her tuition and graduate from a state university.

    During the course of her debate experience, she decided that the Ninth Amendment is her favorite because it seems open to enabling rights for everyone that may not be enumerated in the Constitution or Bill of Rights. It was in that elasticity, she points out, that in 1965 Justice William O. Douglas found the penumbra that defines a right of privacy not otherwise defined in the Constitution. That was central to Douglas majority opinion in Griswold v. Connecticut, providing that the state could not prohibit the use of birth control, and then later in Justice Harry Blackmuns 1973 majority opinion in Roe v. Wade, guaranteeing abortion rights.

    Part of the debate structure required each speaker to describe an amendment drawn randomly. Heidi draws the 14th Amendment, Section 1, the supremely important post-Civil War amendment that guarantees citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the U.S. It contains the life, liberty or property, due process of law and equal protection clauses that have been crucial in so many civil liberties cases. Heidi goes well beyond her limited debaters time to tell us how important this amendment has been for the last 150 years. Even though it took 50 more years to get women the right to vote and another 50 to ensure voting rights for Blacks.

    Jocelyn Shek and Maria Dizzia. Photo by Joan Marcus.

    Ultimately she says that as much as she loves the Constitution, it was always meant only to protect the interests of a small number of rich, white property ownersall men, like the U.S. Supreme Court until Sandra Day OConnor was appointed in 1981.

    The play acknowledges that although our Constitution is deeply flawed and difficult to amend, it is still an essential element of our democracy. Playwright Schreck, granting solid attention to the 14th Amendment as well as the Ninth, unfortunately ignores the First Amendment, which, in its protections for freedom of speech, press, religion and assembly, is a bulwark against repression.

    At the end of the play, pocket Constitutions are handed to every audience member. As an ACLU member for more than 50 years, I was proud to see that the ACLU provided them. They include the ACLUs useful bust-card advice: What to do if youre stopped by police.

    Rachel Haucks set design recreates an American Legion hall, walls lined with framed photos of white mendozens of white men. Lighting is by Jen Schriever and sound design by Sinan Refik Zafar. Costume design is by Michael Krass.

    Heidi Schrecks other writing includes Grand Concourse (Steppenwolf, 2015) and episodes of TV series including Nurse Jackie and Billions.

    What the Constitution Means to Me continues at the Broadway Playhouse, 175 E. Chestnut St., through April 12. Tickets are $30-$105 for performances six days a week with matinees on Wednesday, Saturday and Sunday. Monday is dark. Running time is 110 minutes with no intermission.

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    Review: What the Constitution Means to Me Sheds Light on the Penumbra of Law and the Lives of Women - thirdcoastreview.com

    How Coronavirus Sheds Light on Communion and the Body of Christ – Crosswalk.com - March 10, 2020 by admin

    Photo Credit: Unsplash/Free To Use Sounds

    The spread of Coronavirus is causing disruptions to so many areas of our lives, including the church. Not only has the virus caused many churches to reconsider when and how they will hold worship gatherings; it has caused many churches to revisit whether or not they will share the Lords Supper.

    Far beyond the outbreak of Covid-19, this is something that deserves even more consideration among the people of Christ today.

    The following content is a transcription of a video included within this article, so punctuation may be imperfect, as it is a spoken commentary.

    Im kind of a germaphobe, anyway. I was in a difficult situation a couple weeks ago in a movie theater the other day when I dropped my bottle of Purell on the floor, and had to reach around on a movie theater floor and find it, and then the question was: what do you do to disinfect a container of Purell?

    So, I already sort of have this problem, and then you add to it, the very real alarm that we have going on right now with Coronavirus. Especially with people who are traveling around the world, and as the Coronavirus starts to come into the United States, there have been people who have died already.

    And we also have, beyond that, just the sense of public anxiety; and could be even panic, about Coronavirus and related diseases. We had swine flu several years ago, we had the Ebola concern as well, Avian flu, so...these sorts of potential pandemics come up every once in a while.

    Photo Credit: GettyImages/Pic2Frames

    One of the things that I was thinking aboutin addition to all of the issues of preparing to care for people may come down with Coronavirus and preparing for the potentiality of not having, say, big events, and all of the contingencies that government and non-governmental organizations are going to have to think through iscommunion.

    Someone sent me, knowing my concerns about Lords supper, sent to me a tweet that someone had put up earlier this week from, I believe, a Catholic man who was talking about how dangerous it is to be serving communion with a common cup during a time of potential Coronavirus. And someone else had responded and said, well you oughta then become a Protestant because we have the little individualized cups and the little individualized crackers.

    And so it really caused me to think about something thats been a concern of mine for a long time. And so, I actually would agree with churches that say were not going to do common cup right now in a time of potential epidemic. But, I think that weve lost something when weve lost the practice of the common cup and the Lords table as a meal in my own evangelical community.

    Because I think there are reasons why we do it this way (individualized) that I dont think are good. Now Im not saying that this renders the Lords supper, the way that most of us do it, inoperative. Not at all. The Lords supper is the Lords supper. I just think there are some assumptions behind the very individualized way we do the Lords supper that loses some of what Jesus communicates to us inside the Lords supper: the tearing of the bread, the drinking of the common cup.

    Photo Credit: Unsplash/James Coleman

    When the apostle Paul talks about our gathering together around the table, it is a sign of the unity that Jesus is establishing, and the fact that Jesus himself is feeding us with his own body and his own blood.

    I think that right now, there are all sorts of things that churches may do when it comes to Coronavirus. And it may reach the point where some churches arent able to have a weekly gathering for a while.

    But longer-term than that, I think that we need to have a conversation about what does it mean for us to be part of one body: one loaf, one cup? And I think one of the reasons that some of us dont even think about those ancient practices, is not because were concerned about epidemics, but because we just say thats gross to drink after somebody else.

    That actually is something that the New Testament takes head-on and says: youre not drinking after somebody else. Youre part of one body. Head, body, in Christ.

    And thats worth thinking about when were past the time of sickness.

    Russell Moore is president of the Ethics & Religious Liberty Commission of the Southern Baptist Convention, the moral and public policy agency of the nations largest Protestant denomination. Dr. Moore is the author of several books, including Onward: Engaging the Culture without Losing the Gospeland The Storm-Tossed Family: How the Cross Reshapes the Home. A native Mississippian, he and his wife Maria are the parents of five sons.

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    How Coronavirus Sheds Light on Communion and the Body of Christ - Crosswalk.com

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