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    Platforms Walkways Steps – - March 20, 2019 by admin

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    Metal Flooring, Walkways & Steps | Graepel Perforators - March 20, 2019 by admin

    Graepels offer an extensive range of anti slip flooring with over 20 different types of walkway products for domestic, architectural and industrial applications.

    Like all of our products, SafeDeck Metal Flooring is manufactured to the highest quality and is tested for slip resistance. Further information is available on our catalogues which are available to download here, or you can view our Technical Information catalogue by clicking the box further down on this page.

    Please feel free to review the topic of chequer plate as a high slip potential especially when wet.

    You can also view information about Metal and ProfiledPedestrian surfaces provided by the HSA by clicking the logo below.

    Oil Rigs, Marinas, Fire Escapes, Balconies, Platforms, Ramps, Aviation Maintenance and Assembly Platforms, Industrial Ladders and Bridges. Architectural applications include,Cladding, Balustrade Infill, Fencing and Weather Screen Applications.

    Some finished include Painting, Anodising, Galvanising, Polishing, and Blasting. Please contact us for details.

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    Metal Flooring, Walkways & Steps | Graepel Perforators

    Moving walkway – Wikipedia - March 20, 2019 by admin

    A moving walkway, also known as an autowalk[1], moving sidewalk[2], moving pavement[3], travolator,[4] or travelator,[5] is a slow-moving conveyor mechanism that transports people across a horizontal or inclined plane over a short to medium distance.[6] Moving walkways can be used by standing or walking on them. They are often installed in pairs, one for each direction.

    The first moving walkway debuted at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, in Chicago, Illinois, in the United States. It had two different divisions: one where passengers were seated, and one where riders could stand or walk. It ran in a loop down the length of a lakefront pier to a casino.[7] Six years later a moving walkway was also presented to the public at the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1900. The walkway consisted of three elevated platforms, the first was stationary, the second moved at a moderate speed, and the third at about ten kilometers per hour (six miles per hour). These demonstrations likely served as inspiration for some of H. G. Wells' settings mentioned in the "Science Fiction" section below.

    The Beeler Organization, a New York City consulting firm, proposed a Continuous Transit System with Sub-Surface Moving Platforms for Atlanta in 1924, with a design roughly similar to the Paris Exposition system. The proposed drive system used a linear induction motor. The system was not constructed.

    The first commercial moving walkway in the United States was installed in 1954 in Jersey City, NJ, inside the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Erie station at the Pavonia Terminal. Named the "Speedwalk" and built by Goodyear, it was 84.5 meters (277 feet) long and moved up a 10 percent grade at a speed of 2.4km/h (1.5mph).[8] The walkway was removed a few years later when traffic patterns at the station changed.

    The first moving walkway in an airport was installed in 1958 at Love Field in Dallas, Texas. On January 1, 1960, Tina Marie Brandon, age 2, was killed on the moving sidewalk.[9]

    Moving walkways generally move at a slower speed than a natural walking pace, and even when people continue walking after they step on a moving walkway they tend to slow their pace to compensate, thus moving walkways only minimally improve travel times and overall transport capacity.[10]

    Moving walkways are built in one of two basic styles:

    Both types of moving walkway have a grooved surface to mesh with combplates at the ends. Also, nearly all moving walkways are built with moving handrails similar to those on escalators.[11]

    In the 1970s, Dunlop developed the Speedaway system.[12] It was in fact an invention by Gabriel Bouladon and Paul Zuppiger of the Battelle Memorial Institute at their former Geneva, Switzerland facility. A prototype was built and demonstrated at the Battelle Institute in Geneva in the early 1970s, as can be attested by a (French-speaking) Swiss television program entitled Un Jour une Heure aired in October 1974. The great advantage of the Speedaway, as compared to the then existing systems, was that the embarking/disembarking zone was both wide and slow-moving (up to four passengers could embark simultaneously, equating to around 10,000 per hour), whereas the transportation zone was narrower and fast-moving.

    The entrance to the system was like a very wide escalator, with broad metal tread plates of a parallelogram shape. After a short distance the tread plates were accelerated to one side, sliding past one another to form progressively into a narrower but faster-moving track which travelled at almost a right angle to the entry section. The passenger was accelerated through a parabolic path to a maximum design speed 15km/h (9mph). The experience was unfamiliar to passengers, who needed to understand how to use the system to be able to do so safely. Developing a moving hand-rail for the system presented a challenge, also solved by the Battelle team. The Speedaway was intended to be used as a stand-alone system over short distances or to form acceleration and deceleration units providing entry and exit means for a parallel conventional (but fast-running) Starglide walkway which covered longer distances. The system was still in development in 1975 but never went into commercial production.

    Another attempt at an accelerated walkway in the 1980s was the TRAX (Trottoir Roulant Acclr), which was developed by Dassault and RATP and whose prototype was installed at Invalides station in Paris. The speed at entry and exit was 3km/h (1.9mph), while the maximum speed was 15km/h (9.3mph). It was a technical failure due to its complexity, and was never commercially exploited.

    In the mid-1990s, the Loderway Moving Walkway company patented and licensed a design to a number of larger moving walkway manufacturers. Trial systems were installed at Flinders Street railway station in Melbourne and Brisbane Airport Australia. These met with a positive response from the public, but no permanent installations were made. This system is of the belt type, with a sequence of belts moving at different speeds to accelerate and decelerate riders. A sequence of different speed handrails is also used.

    In 2002, CNIM designed and installed the experimental, 185-metre (607ft) trottoir roulant rapide high-speed walkway in the MontparnasseBienvene station in France. At first it operated at a speed of 12km/h (7.5mph) but was later reduced to 9km/h (5.6mph) due to safety concerns. As the design of the walkway requires riders to have at least one hand free to hold the handrail, those carrying bags, shopping, etc., or who are infirm or physically disabled, must use the ordinary walkway beside it, and staff were positioned at each end to determine who could and who could not use it.[13]

    Using this walkway is similar to using any other moving walkway, except that there are special procedures to follow when entering or exiting at either end. On entering, there is a 10-metre (33ft) acceleration zone where the "ground" is a series of metal rollers. Riders stand still with both feet on these rollers and use one hand to hold the handrail and let it pull them so that they glide over the rollers. The idea is to accelerate the riders so that they will be traveling fast enough to step onto the moving walkway belt. Riders who try to walk on these rollers are at significant risk of falling over. Once on the walkway, riders can stand or walk as on an ordinary moving walkway. At the exit, the same technique is used to decelerate the riders. Users step onto a series of rollers which decelerate them slowly, rather than the abrupt halt which would otherwise take place.

    The walkway proved to be unreliable, leading to many users losing their balance and having accidents. Consequently, it was removed by RATP in 2011 after nine years in service, being replaced with a standard moving walkway.

    In 2007, ThyssenKrupp installed two high-speed walkways in Terminal 1 at Toronto Pearson International Airport.[14] They connect the international gates in the newly opened Pier F, located at one end of the pier, with the rest of the terminal. One walkway serves departing passengers traveling towards the gates and the other serves arriving passengers traveling towards the terminal.

    The walkway's pallet-type design accelerates and decelerates users in a manner that eliminates many of the safety risks generated by the moving belt-type used in Paris, making it suitable for use by people of all ages and sizes regardless of their health condition. The pallets "intermesh" with a comb and slot arrangement. They expand out of each other when speeding up, and compress into each other when slowing down. The handrails work in a similar manner, and because of this, there is no need to hold the handrails when entering or exiting the walkway. It moves at roughly 2km/h (1.2mph) when riders step onto it and speeds up to approximately 7km/h (4.3mph), which it remains at until near the end, where it slows back down.

    An inclined moving walkway (commonly known as an Inclinator) is a type of vertical transportation used in airports and supermarkets to move people to another floor with the convenience of an elevator (namely, that people can take along their suitcase trolley, shopping cart, or baby carriage) and the capacity of an escalator.

    The carts have either a brake that is automatically applied when the cart handle is released, strong magnets in the wheels to stay adhered to the floor, or specially designed wheels that secure the cart within the grooves of the ramp, so that wheeled items travel alongside the riders and do not slip away.

    Some department stores instead use shopping cart conveyors to transport passengers and their carts between store levels simultaneously. Walmart in Canada require users of wheelchairs and other mobility aids to be accompanied by shop staff when using their moving walkways, which they refer to as 'movators'.[15] This policy has been superseded in some stores by the installation of elevators.

    Moving walkways are frequently found in the following locations:

    Moving walkways are commonly used in larger airports, as passengers often with heavy luggage in tow typically need to walk considerable distances. Moving walkways may be used:

    Of particular note is the Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris, France, which has several moving walkways inside a series of futuristic suspended tubes.

    Moving walkways are useful for remote platforms in underground subway/metro stations, or assisting with lengthier connections between lines, for example:

    A moving walkway was formerly part of the complex in Spadina subway station in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Installed in 1978, it reduced the travel time needed to transfer between the platforms on the Bloor-Danforth and the Yonge-University-Spadina lines. They were removed in 2004 and patrons are now required to walk between the stations.

    Hong Kong is one of the world's most heavily populated cities, and has public escalators that connect many streets. See: CentralMid-Levels escalators

    Moving sidewalks may be used:

    The 197576 American Freedom Train did this with a moving walkway inside each successive railroad car, thus maximizing the number of people who could view the interior exhibits in the limited time the train was stopped in each town.[citation needed]

    The National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, USA, uses a moving walkway to connect the two main galleries.

    The Tower of London in London, England, uses a moving walkway where visitors are passing the cabinets which contain the Crown Jewels.

    Similar to museums, some zoological park exhibits have a moving walkway to ease guests through an animal display or habitat. An aquarium at the Mall of America does this with a moving walkway made up of specially rounded pallets that enable it to change directions en route. The San Diego Zoo uses moving ramps to help guests ascend steep grades.

    Some amusement park rides, such as continuous-motion dark rides like Disney's Omnimover rides, make use of a moving sidewalk to assist passengers in boarding and disembarking rides and attractions. Some examples include:

    The Phantom of the Opera by Andrew Lloyd Webber uses a travelator in the number 'The Phantom of the Opera' (act one, scene six), to give the illusion the Phantom and Christine are traveling the catacombs below the Paris Opera House a great distance to the Phantom's lair on the subterranean lake.

    Moving walkways known as Magic carpets are also used in ski resorts. Skiers can place their skis on the walkway, which is designed to provide a strong level of grip. Since the walkways cannot be too steep and are slow compared to other aerial lifts, they are used especially for beginners or to transport people over a short uphill distance, such as to reach a restaurant or another lift's station. Moving walkways can also be found at chairlifts' entrances to help passengers in the boarding process.

    In the UK, inclined travelators are used in stores, including Asda, B&M Bargains, IKEA, Marks & Spencer, Morrisons, Sainsbury's, and Tesco. For example, Tesco in Aberystwyth uses six inclined travelators (three up, three down in a criss-cross layout) to transport shoppers and their trolleys between the store, the rooftop car park and the under-store car park).[17][18]

    The concept of a megalopolis based on high-speed walkways is common in science fiction. The first works set in such a location are "A Story of the Days To Come" (1897) and When The Sleeper Wakes (1899) (also republished as The Sleeper Awakes), written by H. G. Wells, which take place in a future London. Thirty years later, the silent film Metropolis (1927) depicted several scenes showing moving sidewalks and escalators between skyscrapers at high levels. Later, the short story "The Roads Must Roll" (1940), written by Robert A. Heinlein, depicts the risk of a transportation strike in a society based on similar-speed sidewalks. The novel is part of the Future History saga, and takes place in 1976. Isaac Asimov, in the novel The Caves of Steel (1954) and its sequels in the Robot series, uses similar enormous underground cities with a similar sidewalk system. The period described is about the year 5,000.

    In each of these cases, there is a massive network of parallel moving belts, the inner ones moving faster. Passengers are screened from wind, and there are chairs and even shops on the belt. In the Heinlein work the fast lane runs at 160km/h (100mph), and the first "mechanical road" was built in 1960 between Cincinnati and Cleveland. The relative speed of two adjacent belts is 8.0km/h (5mph)[19] (in the book, the fast lane stops while the second lane keeps running at 153km/h (95mph)). In the Wells and Asimov works there are more steps in the speed scale and the speeds are less extreme.

    In Arthur C. Clarke's novel, Against the Fall of Night (later rewritten as The City and the Stars) the Megacity of Diaspar is interwoven with "moving ways" which, unlike Heinlein's conveyor belts, are solid floors that can mysteriously move as a fluid. In the novel, Clarke writes,

    An engineer of the ancient world would have gone slowly mad trying to understand how a solid roadway could be fixed at both ends while its centre travelled at a hundred miles an hour... The corridor still inclined upwards, and in a few hundred feet had curved through a complete right-angle. But only logic knew this: to the senses it was now as if one were being hurried along an absolutely level corridor. The fact that he was in reality travelling up a vertical shaft thousands of feet deep gave Alvin no sense of insecurity, for a failure of the polarizing field was unthinkable.

    In his non-fiction book Profiles of the Future, Arthur C. Clarke mentions moving sidewalks but made of some sort of anisotropic material that could flow in the direction of travel but hold the weight of a person. The fluid would have the advantage of offering a continuous gradient of speed from the edge to edge so there would be no jumps, and simply moving from side to side would effect a change in speed.

    In the Strugatsky brothers' Noon Universe, the worldwide network of moving roads is one of the first megaprojects undertaken on newly united Earth, before the advent of FTL starships and its consequences turned everybody's attention to the stars. These roads there are quasiliving organisms similar to Clarke's description and were used for both local commuting and long-distance non-urgent transport until their use was eclipsed by an instant teleportation network.

    The animated TV series The Jetsons depicts moving walkways everywhere, even in private homes.

    A slidewalk is a fictional moving sidewalk structurally sound enough to support buildings and large populations of travelers. Adjacent slidewalks moving at different rates could let travelers accelerate to great speeds. The term is also used colloquially for a conventional moving walkway.

    They were imagined by science fiction writer H. G. Wells in When the Sleeper Wakes. Robert A. Heinlein made them the instruments of social upheaval in the 1940 short story The Roads Must Roll. Isaac Asimov, in his Robot series, imagined slidewalks as the potential method of transportation of practically the entire urban population on Earth, with expressways moving at up to 95km/h (60mph) equipped with seating accommodations for long distance travel, and with slower subsidiary tracks branching off from the main lines. Arthur C. Clarke also used them in The City and the Stars. Larry Niven used them in Ringworld and Flatlander. Slidewalks figure prominently in the animated series "The Jetsons".

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    Moving walkway - Wikipedia

    Step by Step Directions - March 8, 2019 by admin

    Terminal Ticketing

    Welcome to the Greater Cincinnati Northern Kentucky International Airport. All airline and baggage check-in occurs on the ticketing level. To your right of the main entrance are American, United, Air Canada, Frontier, Allegiant and other scheduled charter airlines. The furthest distance is less than 250 feet.

    To your left is Delta with the furthest distance less than 225 feet. From the main entrance center, flight information monitors showing arrival and departure flights are located on either side and less than 70 feet away.

    An airport directory is located on the pedestrian bridge connecting both ticketing halls and less than 70 feet away from the information monitors.

    After completing check-in, proceed along the pedestrian bridge towards security. The distance between the bridge and security entrance is less than 200 feet away.

    To the right side of the pedestrian bridge are mens, womens and family restrooms. All CVG restrooms are wheelchair accessible.

    Be sure to check your boarding pass prior to entering security to select your correct entry point.

    Digital signage identifies each lane entrance. The general entrance pointthe assistance lane, accessible for passengers with service animals, wheelchairs, or strollers. And, the Pre-check entrance for passengers with the Pre-check symbol on their boarding pass.

    Security wait times can be found on a monitor at the center of the security entrance, or by visiting

    After clearing security and proceeding down two escalators, you will be in the transportation hall, which connects to the gates in concourse A or B. Flight information monitors are to your right.

    As you proceed forward, near the center of the terminal transportation hall is an airport directory. Your options to connect to the concourses are the trains on either side, moving walkways, or walking.

    To see current routes, look for the information screens above the train entry doors. The furthest distance between the terminal and concourse B is less than 1500 feet. Typical travel time between the terminal and concourse B is 4 minutes by train or 6 minutes by walking. Travel to concourse A is half that amount of time from either the terminal or concourse B.

    An airport directory is located near the center of the Concourse A Transportation Hall. When facing the escalators, stay to your right for the up escalator or proceed between the escalators for the elevator. The distance from the center of the transportation hall to the escalators is less than 200 feet.

    Immediately to the right of the up escalators are flight information monitors, which are located on both the lower and upper floors.

    In the center hub, you will see an information desk staffed by community ambassadors. An airport directory is also available.

    From the center hub, turn right for the hallway leading to gates A4 through A23. The distance between the center and furthest gate is less than 1200 feet or 4 minutes walking. Moving walkways are also available. The nearest restrooms are located to your right and less than 150 feet away.

    Gates A4 through A23 lead to a center hub where you will find an information desk staffed by community ambassadors. The distance between the furthest gate and center hub is less than 1200 feet or 4 minutes by walking. Moving walkways are also available along the path. Please be aware that mens, womens, and family restrooms are located throughout concourse A and are all wheelchair accessible.

    Proceed down to the lower level transportation hall and follow signs for baggage claim and ground transportation. Stay to your right for the down escalator or elevator.

    When you reach the transportation hall, continue straight ahead for the trains. Riding the train to the terminal takes just 2 minutes. To walk, turn left between the escalators. Walking to the terminal is less than 750 feet or 3 minutes.

    Near the center of the Concourse B transportation hall is an airport directory. Flight information monitors are located immediately to the left of the up escalators. When facing the escalators, stay to your right for the up escalator or proceed between the escalators for the elevator. The distance from the center of the transportation hall to the escalators is less than 200 feet.

    As you arrive in the center hub, please look for signs to mens, womens and family restrooms, which are located throughout concourse B. All CVG restrooms are wheelchair accessible.

    In the center hub, you will also see an airport directory, and an information desk staffed by community ambassadors. The distance between the center and furthest gate is less than 1,050 feet or 3 minutes by walking. Moving walkways are also available for your convenience.

    From the center hub, turn right for the hallway leading to gates B1 through B12. The food court is located in the center hub, with other food options available nearby. Turn left for the hallway leading to gates B13 through B28.

    All B gates lead to a center hub where you will find an information desk and airport directory. The distance to the furthest gate is less than 1,050 feet or 3 minutes by walking. For your convenience, moving walkways are also available.

    Please note mens, womens and family restrooms are located throughout concourse A. All CVG restrooms are wheelchair accessible.

    Proceed down to the lower level to get to the transportation hall.

    Follow the signs for baggage claim and ground transportation. Stay to your right for the down escalator or elevator.

    Upon reaching the transportation hall, continue straight ahead for the trains or walking option. Taking the train to the terminal is 4 minutes. Walking is less than 1,500 feet or 6 minutes. Moving walkways are also available.

    Welcome to the United States of America. Were honored to be the port of entry for guests visiting the region or friends and family returning home. Please note: no cameras, cell phones or recording devices are permitted in this area until cleared by security.

    All arriving international customers are required to complete TSA screening prior to entry into the same concourse as departing domestic flights. Please note: liquids in excess of 3.4 ounces must be placed in checked luggage, which can be retrieved at the Terminal Baggage Claim. If connecting to another Delta flight, continue straight to gates B1 through B28.

    After exiting security, take the down escalators or elevator to the transportation hall. Follow the signs for Baggage Claim and Ground Transportation to exit the airport.

    Continue straight ahead for the trains or walking option. The train to the Terminal is 4 minutes. Walking is less than 1500 feet or 6 minutes. Moving walkways are also available. escalators are to the left and right for all Concourse B departure gates.

    Upon reaching the Terminal transportation hall, continue straight ahead for the Single airport exit. Guests awaiting your arrival are invited to wait in the glassed-in welcome point areas on either side of the exit.

    For security purposes, please do not stop in the exit lane. Re-entry to the secure side is only permitted through TSA screening during operating hours.

    Upon exiting, to your left are escalators to and from the ticketing level. Proceed down the center for the elevator to all terminal levels. Stay right for the private car meeting point and take the up escalators for baggage claim and ground transportation.

    From the central hub of baggage claim, overhead monitors indicate the assigned carousel number for your flight. Carousels 1 through 3 are located to the left of the monitors. Carousels 4 through 6 are located to the right. Oversized items may be claimed near carousel 1.

    To the right and less than 75 feet away are mens, womens, and family restrooms. All CVG restrooms are wheelchair accessible.

    Proceed straight ahead for the ground transportation center where you will find rental cars, hotel shuttles, private vehicles and public transportation. The furthest distance from Carousel 1 to the Ground transportation center is less than 850 feet away.

    All other customers may proceed to the front exits for Valet parking, ValuPark shuttle, off-airport parking operators, ride share apps and taxis. Regular passenger pick-up occurs on the outer curb. The parking garage is accessible from the baggage claim and ticketing levels.

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    2019 Cost To Build A Patio or Walkway | Patio Costs … - March 4, 2019 by admin

    Concrete: A poured concrete patio or walkway is an affordable material that requires simple and relatively quick installation. Poured concrete is one of the most affordable patio and walkway materials because unlike brick, tile or stone it does not require individual pieces to be laid and grouted.

    Stamped Concrete: A method by which concrete is poured and then a pattern that looks like brick , stone or tile is stamped into the concrete surface and colored or painted to look like the material it is mimicking. Using stamped concrete is a more affordable way of getting the look of brick or tiles without paying the higher price.

    Concrete Pavers: These mix of cement, sand, stone and water and are made to look like natural stone, without a natural stone price. Concrete pavers can be installed in a few different ways with and without grout. The type of installation you choose will have an affect on the price, but in general you will pay less for concrete pavers than you will for stone or tile installation.

    Stone: Natural stone, like flagstone, slate or travertine, are the most expensive materials you can use for a patio or walkway, but are very beautiful as well as long lasting.

    Asphalt WalkwaysAsphalt is a good, durable, reasonably priced material for many walkways and driveways. Although asphalt does not have the beauty of stone or brick, it may be the best possible material for areas that are highly trafficked and for which you want minimal upkeep. Asphalt is greatly affected by the weather and will crack or shift over time with excess moisture or heat. Asphalt will periodically need to be repaired and resurfaced over time, but requires little more upkeep.

    The most important decision is to choose the materials that work the best for your lifestyle. If your patio and walkways are going to get a lot of rough usage from many people, children or pets, you may choose a less expensive, but more durable material. If they will get light use and their beauty is the most important factor to you, you may choose a more expensive and more decorative material.

    Labor Cost FactorsFinally, the cost of labor is a always a consideration. Although laying patios and walkways is not a complicated process, it does take experience and practice to do it well. Although you may want to try the installation yourself to cut costs, you may wish you had spent the money for a professional installation in the long run.

    Patios and walkways are exposed to the elements and are therefore prone to cracking and settling. A professional installation can often make the difference between a patio that develops cracks and unevenness or one that looks smooth and even for years to come.

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    Professional Stone Work, Silver Spring, MD – Phone:240-644 … - March 4, 2019 by admin

    Repairing Your Flagstone Patio, Flagstone Walkway or Steps

    Your flagstone patio or walkway can get damaged and may need repair due to several reasons. Most often in our line of work we see many incorrectly done flagstones work. Sometimes even if a flagstones work was done properly it may need repair due to age or exposure to weather elements.Repairing Your Flagstone Patio, Flagstone Walkway or Steps

    In addition to being an attractive design element, a stone border circling a tree is quite a practical structure in several different ways. It protects the tree trunk from contact with lawn mowers and edge trimmers. It also corrals mulch from spreading to the lawn.

    Depending on the height of the border and the material

    Continue reading Hardscape Tree Rings

    The usage gazebos was started in Egypt 5000 yeas back when it was the symbol of the royalty. Depending on your specific requirement a backyard Gazebo can act as a Garden Pavilion, Childrens Playhouse, Potting and Garden Shed or an Entertainment Pavilion.

    We can buy, assemble and setup gazebos to fit every outdoor occasion

    Continue reading Gazebos

    Flagstones are stones, which are cut to form a shallow, flat slab. They are commonly cut from stones that are easily split such as limestone, granite, and sandstone. They are often used as pavers for patios and paths. However they also make excellent materials for building steps.

    They are available in several different thicknesses and can

    Continue reading Flagstone Steps

    Among the various natural stones, flagstone is an ideal material for your patio. They are quite durable and has the natural non-slip surface. They also come in a wide range of colors, from red and brown to pink, green, gold and beige, so we can coordinate with virtually any color scheme you desire. Finally flagstones

    Continue reading Flagstone Patios

    Using bricks to build your homes walkway adds an elegant touch to your home that is unmatched by concrete or asphalt. Plus, with bricks you can have a wide variety of patterns and designs, which is not possible if we use flagstones.

    Bricks are available in such a wide range of colors; they can complement

    Continue reading Brick Walkways

    We have worked with different types of stone patio materials including flagstones. However the traditional red clay paving brick has always received the most glowing compliments from customers.

    Not all brick are created equal. Since this area get really cold during wintertime, the brick we use are made with high quality clay and is fired

    Continue reading Brick Patios

    Stone Retaining walls have been a part of construction for thousands of years. Before the use of mortar and plaster became commonplace, farmers and primitive people piled loose fieldstones into what was known as a dry stone wall. These dry stone walls can still be found today, especially in Ireland and other parts of Europe.

    Continue reading Stone Retaining Walls

    One of the most popular types of walkways is the stone walkway. The magnificence and magic of the stone walkway is only matched by its durability.

    Hire Professional Stone Work to install one of these beautiful walkways in your home. Within a day or two you will have a Paver walkway that will improve the value

    Continue reading Paver Walkway

    Because of their usefulness, fire pits have continued to be a fashionable item, in spite of the fact that there have been countless scientific innovations between when man first started using fire and the present. Professional Stone Work will build your fire pit in line with your individual wishes, and these include a broad selection

    Continue reading Fire Pits

    Asphalt and concrete have been the two popular choices for driveway material.

    However, when it comes to sustainability and preserving the environment, few driveway-paving materials can match concrete. When you build a concrete driveway, youre using abundant, sustainable resources including water, natural rock and sand, and cement, unlike asphalt pavements that are made with nonrenewable petroleum

    Continue reading Concrete Driveway

    Laying a flagstone walkway can be a very good choice if you have a worn trail outside your home or you want to substitute an existing pathway with something nicer. With Professional Stone Work, installing a flagstone walkway is just a matter of choosing your style of flagstone and determining how you want the pieces

    Continue reading Flagstone Walkway

    Outdoor living spaces will continue to be popular for many years to come. A backyard pool & fountains can add a charming show of cascading water to your space. If its tastefully done, it can potentially increase the resale value of your property by up to 15%. In the long term, this is a wise

    Continue reading Pools and Fountains

    Few summer delights are as enjoyable as a cookout. An outdoor kitchen can help you slow down and spend more time with family and friends by putting all the items for outdoor dining close by. Outdoor kitchens are much more casual than the indoor variety, and their design would depend on your familys needs. Now

    Continue reading Outdoor Kitchens

    Pavers are a popular choice for driveways / walkways. They are more durable than their concrete driveways. For paver driveways, small, individual, brick-like pieces are made into geometric shapes; and they are designed to look like stones.

    We at Professional Stonework have years of experience building quality paver driveways. Here are some ideas to have your

    Continue reading Paver Driveway

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    Professional Stone Work, Silver Spring, MD - Phone:240-644 ...

    Stone Walkways, Steps and Stairs – Poole’s Stone & Garden - February 28, 2019 by admin

    Walkway, Steps and Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden -Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden, Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways and Patios by Poole's Stone & Garden, Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Patios and Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland & Virginia

    Steps and Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Landscape Design in Virginia & Maryland by Pooles Stone & Garden

    Walkway, Steps and Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Patios and Stone Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Stone Steps and Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Landscape Design, Patio and Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Landscape Design and Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Landscape Design and Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Stone Steps and Garden Specialty by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Step & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland & Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden, Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden, Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden, Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden, Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walksways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden, Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden, Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Patios by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Patios, Stone Steps & Stairs and Stone Walls by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Patios, Stone Walls and Stone Steps and Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Stone Walls, Steps and Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Steps & Stairs and Stone Walls by Poole's Stone & Garden, Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways and Stone Walls by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkway, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways and Stone Columns by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Steps & Stairs, and Stone Walls by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Stone Walls, Columns and Walkways by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways and Stone Walls by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Landscape Design, Walls, Steps & Stairs by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways and Stone Walls by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Walkways and Boulders by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Boulders and Stones by Poole's Stone & Garden - Maryland and Virginia

    Landscape Designs in Maryland and Virginia

    Landscape Designs for Homes & Businesses in MD & VA

    Outdoor Stone Patios in MD & VA

    MD & VA Landscape Designs

    Landscape Designs for Maryland & VA Residents

    MD & VA Landscape Designs



    Gracious stairway leads to a cozy patio

    Frederick, Bethesda & Ellicott City MD

    A front entryway is the face of your residence and often represents the first opportunity to welcome visitors to your home. This space should enhance the architecture of your home and provide a glimpse of your familys personal taste.

    Whether new construction or retrofitting an existing stoop, there is never a shortage of creative ways to maneuver a hillside or craft a landing and steps to any entrance of your home. Many factors determine the right design or materials to use, and are based on ease of accessibility, site constraints and budget. As experienced designers and builders we weigh all the factors and suggest the best solution for every need.

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    Stone Walkways, Steps and Stairs - Poole's Stone & Garden

    Tips for Creating an Inviting Walkway | HGTV - February 8, 2019 by admin

    Create a Little Mystery

    A gentle curve obscures the path ahead, inviting further exploration. The other pleasure of this garden, designed by Jeff Allen: The path is lined with soft, fragrant plants that invite you to brush up against them.

    The most appealing front walkways are wide enough for two people to walk side by side comfortably. This patterned walk, designed by RMSer 66nick, ties the house to the hardscape and the plants in such a way that even a midwinter landscape looks good.

    You can control the speed of how someone might walk a path by installing a wide variety of plants with interesting flowers, foliage or fragrance.

    Another way to control the pace of a path is by inviting attention to each step. Mixing hardscaping materials is a fun variation in this electic pathway and is especially attractive in cottage gardens. Posted by RMSer Mikaniru

    This beautiful stone walkway rambles between large boulders and soft perennials. Irish moss between the flagstones provides a rhythm to the walkway. Uploaded by RMSer SDEP

    Landscape designer Jamie Durie wanted to bring the textures and colors of Sedona, Ariz., into this backyard. Inspired by the rusted steel that's often seen in sculpture there, he used rebar between the joints of this colorful walkway, playing off the textures of stone and wood.

    In this African-inspired outdoor living space, a mixture of textures on the surface, including the rustic timber walkway, give this space an "untamed, natural look," says designer Jamie Durie. Photo by Jason Busch

    Designing a walkway gives you the opportunity to express your creativity in the garden. RMSer UtahGirl's mulch path through a shady garden reveals an explosion of color.

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    Tips for Creating an Inviting Walkway | HGTV

    Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System - February 8, 2019 by admin

    Recommended Guidelines/Priorities for Sidewalks and WalkwaysIntroduction

    According to the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (also known as the Green Book): Providing safe places for people to walk is an essential responsibility of all government entities involved in constructing or regulating the construction of public rights-of-way.

    It is a basic principle that there be well-designed, safe places for people to walk along all public rights-of-way. How this will be accomplished will depend upon the type of road, whether it is new construction or a retrofitted area, and funding availability.

    On February 24, 1999, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Administrator Kenneth R. Wykle, in a memorandum to FHWA field offices, stated, We expect every transportation agency to make accommodations for bicycling and walking a routine part of their planning, design, construction, operations, and maintenance activities. Again, in February 28, 2000, Administrator Wykle sent a memorandum to the field offices in transmitting the new Design Guidance Language called for in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). The guidance, entitled Accommodating Bicycle and Pedestrian Travel: A Recommended ApproachA U.S. DOT Policy Statement on Integrating Bicycling and Walking Into Transportation Infrastructure, states that bicycling and walking facilities will be incorporated into all transportation projects unless exceptional circumstances exist. The exceptional circumstances are spelled out, and he asked the division offices to work with State departments of transportation (DOTs) in the implementation of the guidance.

    Government agencies at the State, regional, and local level are developing regulations for funding, installing, and retrofitting sidewalks. Because there is a great need to improve sidewalk facilities, it is important for these transportation agencies to direct funding to sidewalk improvement and installation projects that will be most beneficial to the safety and mobility of all citizens.

    This document is intended to provide agencies at the State, regional, and local levels with tools they can use to develop guidelines for creating places for people to walk.

    This document is limited to creating guidelines for sidewalks, which addresses only one major pedestrian need; other needs that merit further consideration include the ability to cross a street and intersection design.

    Many communities may wish to revisit their roadway planning and rehabilitation criteria. Policies, standard plans, subdivision regulations, and right-of-way requirements should be considered to make sure that sidewalks are included in new construction and rehabilitation projects.

    Typically, communities should focus on: (1) improving conditions for people who are currently walking (including improved accessibility to sidewalk facilities for pedestrians with disabilities), (2) increasing levels of walking, and (3) reducing the number of crashes involving pedestrians. Setting targets will help in the development of criteria for installing and retrofitting sidewalks.

    There are several ways in which pedestrians can be accommodated in the public right-of-way:

    Places for people to walk should be provided in all new construction. Retrofitting will require priorities to be set, and these guidelines are intended to help identify where the need is greatest for adding sidewalks and other facilities.

    All new construction must include places for people to walk, on bothsides of a street or roadway. New construction inurban and suburban areas should provide sidewalks.Recommended guidelines for new sidewalk and walkwayinstallation are given in Table 1 below.

    In developing areas and rural areas, it may be acceptablealthough less desirableto start with shoulders and unpaved paths and then phase in sidewalks as development accelerates. Criteria for installing sidewalks along with new development should be implemented with the following in mind:

    There is a desire in some residential developments to retain a rural atmosphere. Very often this occurs in places that are not truly rural, but rather suburban or exurban (they may have been rural before being developed). Frequently, it is in such places that pedestrian crashes occur that are directly attributable to pedestrians not having places to walk. To address both the goal of having safe places to walk and that of the community to retain a certain atmosphere, path systems can be developed that do not look like traditional sidewalks, but do meet walking needs. Even in rural areas, people do want to walk and such facilities should be provided.

    Developers in outlying areas may argue that the land use will never fully develop into a pedestrian area. Given that people walk despite not having facilitiesfor exercise, going to friends houses, accessing transit, is neither rational nor acceptable to build places that do not have places for people to walk. Residential developments that were added in suburban areas, until recently, typically had sidewalks and functioned very well.

    Sidewalks may not be needed on short residential cul-de-sacs (61 m [200 ft] or less), if there is a system of trails behind the houses and driveway aprons are properly constructed for pedestrians with disabilities. However, it is not a good practice to have an entire neighborhood without sidewalks.

    Sidewalks should be continuous; interruptions may require pedestriansto cross a busy arterial street midblock or at an unsignalized locationto continue walking. Sidewalks should also be fully accessible to sidestreets and adjacent sidewalks and buildings.

    1 acre=0.4 hectares (ha)

    Many of the streets built in recent decades do not have sidewalks, and these streets need to be retrofitted. In other cases, existing sidewalks need to be replaced. Establishing priorities for installing sidewalks involves three steps: (1) develop a prioritized list of criteria, (2) develop a methodology for using the criteria to evaluate potential sites, and (3) create a prioritized list of sites for sidewalk improvements.

    The following are suggested criteria for establishing priorities. Select three or more of them when developing your own set of criteria. The key is to select criteria that produce the outcomes desired for your community:

    Seattle recently completed an inventory of all sidewalksin the city using a three-step process:

    The totaleffort took the equivalent of one full-time person working for 6 months in a city of 530,000 population,218.3 km2 (84.3 mi2) of land use and 2,659 roadway kilometers (1,652 roadway miles) [1,934 residential street kilometers (1,202 residential street miles) and 724 arterial kilometers (450 arterial miles)]. Once the inventory was completed, the information was combined on a map with three other types of information:

    Once the map was printed,it was very easy to see where the three colorsoverlapped, two colors overlapped, etc. The final step was to have the computer calculate the sidewalk deficiencies in the overlapping areas. They found, for example, that there were less than 3 km (2 mi) of arterialstreets that were within school walking zones,a pedestrian generator area, and a neighborhood commercial area that did not have sidewalks on either side of the street.

    There were nearly 4.8 km (3 mi) of arterial streets that were within school walking areas, but outside of neighborhood commercial areas and pedestrian generators that did not have sidewalks on either side of the street. This was compared to a citywidedeficiency of more than 32 km (20 mi) of arterialstreets that lacked sidewalks on both sides of the street.

    By developing these and other numbers, the pedestrian program was able to put together packages of information that demonstrated what could be accomplishedwith additional funding. What everyone thoughtto be an unsolvable multi-million-dollar problemwas reduced to a series of smaller, fundableprojects that decisionmakers could endorse. Theresult was increased funding and a new optimismthat meaningful progress could be made on solving Seattles sidewalkdeficiencies.

    The two recommended methodologies for selecting locations for improvements are: (1) the overlapping priorities method, and (2) the points method. Establishing priorities should consume only a small percentage of a program budgetthe level of effort put into prioritization should be proportionate to the size of the capital budget.

    There is no single right way to select which criteria to use when developing priorities. The criteria and methodology should balance safety measures, such as vehicle speeds and pedestrian crash data; pedestrian usage measures, such as proximity to schools or commercial areas; continuity between origins and destinations; and accessibility for pedestrians with disabilities.

    1. Overlapping Priorities Method The easiest and cheapest way to identify overlapping priorities is through graphical representation; the intent is to identify locations that meet multiple criteria. This methodology is especially useful in cases where there is not a lot of staff time and funding for detailed analysis. It can be accomplished using a GIS system or it can be done by hand.

    The best way to describe this methodology is by example. Assume that priorities are going to be developed based on transit routes, proximity to schools, people with disabilities, and neighborhood commercial areas. Start with a map of your jurisdiction. Using a color pen, identify those arterials that have high transit use; draw a half-mile circle around every elementary school and around locations that attract people with disabilities; and color in the neighborhood commercial areas. This visual approach will make areas of overlapping priorities become immediately clear. The streets without sidewalks within the overlapping areas are the highest priority for retrofitting sidewalks.

    2. Points Method A weighted points system can be used where staff time and funding are available for more detailed analysis, or if there is a large amount of capital available for sidewalk construction. If there are a lot of competing projects, a more sophisticated point system can be used to explain to the public why certain projects were funded and others were not.

    A point system can be developed in many ways; the system should be simple and produce desired outcomes. Any and all of the criteria listed above can be assigned a range of numbers and then be used to analyze the need for improvement at given locations. For example, a corridor could be assigned points based on the number of walking along roadway crashes over a 5-year period, the number of buses that travel the corridor during peak times, and the proximity to elementary schools. This method is time-consuming because it will be necessary to analyze multiple locations with sidewalk needs to create a list of priority projects.

    3. Prioritized List Both the overlapping priorities and the points methods will produce an initial list of prioritized projects. The next step is to refine the list so that it works, using common sense. One important consideration is that when roadways are resurfaced, rehabilitated, or replaced, curb ramps must be added if there are pedestrian walkways. In addition, the U.S. Department of Justice considers bus stops to be pedestrian walkways requiring access for people with disabilities, so areas near transit should be given priority accordingly. Improving pedestrian crossings, particularly on arterial streets, may also be an important part of some projects. Other important questions include: Are priority locations ones that might be expected? Are there many surprises? Are priority locations in line with community priorities and expectations? Are some priorities at locations with very low pedestrian use? If the answer to these questions is "yes," then the criteria or the methodology should be evaluated and possibly revised to create outcomes that better reflect expectations and desires. The methodologies should be used to prioritize known needs, not to create a new set of priorities that dont make sense.

    The final step is to create packages of fundable projects. The prioritization process should result in reasonable packages that decision-makers can embrace and support. For example, it may be possible to install sidewalks on both sides of every arterial within a half-mile of every elementary school for $5 million over a period of 5 years. Or, it may be possible to replace sidewalks in neighborhood commercial areas for $2 million over a period of 3 years. The objective is to take what may appear to be an unsolvable problem (endless need for more funds) and to package it in such a way that it begins to address some of the most critical pedestrian needs in a community.

    Continuous sidewalks should be placed along both sides of all fully improved arterial, collector, and local streets in urban and suburban areas. Sidewalks should connect to side streets and adjacent buildings. Accessible crossings should be provided across median islands, frontage road medians, and other raised islands.

    A safe walking area must be provided outside the motor vehicle traffic travelway. Sidewalks along rural roads should be well separated from the travelway. Isolated residential areas should have a pedestrian connection to the rest of the rural community for school access, shopping, and recreational trips.

    An off-road pathalso known as a side pathis a type of walkway used in some rural settings. This path may be paved or unpaved, and is separated from the roadway by a grass or landscaped strip without curbing. This maintains a rural look, but is safer and more comfortable than a shoulder.

    A paved or unpaved shoulder should be provided as a minimum along the road. Paved shoulders are preferred to provide an all-weather walking surface, since they also serve bicyclists and improve the overall safety of the road. A 1.5-m- (5-ft-) wide shoulder is acceptable for pedestrians along low-volume rural highways. Greater width, up to 2.4 to 3.0 m (8 to 10 ft), is desirable along high-speed highways, particularly with a large number of trucks. An edgeline should be marked to separate the shoulder from the travelway.

    The width of a sidewalk depends primarily on the number of pedestrians who are expected to use the sidewalk at a given time high-use sidewalks should be wider than low-use sidewalks. "Street furniture" and sidewalk cafes require extra width, too. A sidewalk width of 1.5 m (5 ft) is needed for two adult pedestrians to comfortably walk side-by-side, and all sidewalks should be constructed to be at least this width. The minimum sidewalk widths for cities large and small are:

    *2.4-m (8-ft) minimum in commercial areas with a planter strip, 3.7-m (12-ft) minimum in commercial areas with no planter strip.

    These widths represent a clear or unobstructed width. Point obstructions may be acceptable as long as there is at least 914 mm (36 in) for wheelchair maneuvering (no less than 1,219 mm (48 in) wide as a whole); however, every attempt should be made to locate streetlights, utility poles, signposts, fire hydrants, mail boxes, parking meters, bus benches, and other street furniture out of the sidewalk. When that is not possible, sidewalk furnishings and other obstructions should be located consistently so that there is a clear travel zone for pedestrians with vision impairments and a wider sidewalk should be provided to accommodate this line of obstructions.

    Similarly, when sidewalks abut storefronts, the sidewalk should be built 0.6 m (2 ft) wider to accommodate window-shoppers and to avoid conflicts with doors opening and pedestrians entering or leaving the buildings.

    Many 1.2-m (4-ft) sidewalks were built in the past. This width does not provide adequate clearance room or mobility for pedestrians passing in opposite directions. All new and retrofitted sidewalks should be 1.5 m (5 ft) feet or wider.

    Buffers between pedestrians and motor vehicle traffic are important to provide greater levels of comfort, security, and safety to pedestrians. Landscaped buffers provide a space for poles, signs, and other obstructions; they serve as a snow storage area; and they protect pedestrians from splash. The ideal width of a planting strip is 1.8 m (6 ft). Minimum allowable landscape buffer widths are:

    With a landscaped buffer between the sidewalk and the street, care must be taken to ensure that the bus stops are fully accessible to wheelchair users and have connections to the sidewalk. Irrigation may be needed in areas of low precipitation.

    Buffers also provide the added space to make curb ramps and landings accessible. When the ramps and landings are designed properly, they are also better utilized by those pushing strollers or pulling carts and luggage.

    If a planting strip is not provided between the sidewalk and roadway, then the sidewalk width should be a minimum of 1.8 m (6 ft).

    Where landscaped sidewalk buffers cannot be provided due to constraints, on-street parking, a shoulder, or a bike lane can serve to buffer pedestrians from motor vehicle traffic lanes.

    Concrete is the preferred sidewalk surface, providing the longest service life and requiring the least amount of maintenance. Asphalt is an acceptable walkway surface in rural areas and in park settings, and crushed granite may also be an acceptable all-weather material in parks or rural areas, but they generally require higher levels of maintenance and are less desirable for wheelchair users.

    Sidewalks may be constructed with bricks and pavers if they are constructedto avoid settling; bricks should be easy to reset or replace if they causea tripping hazard. Also, bricks and/or pavers can cause vibrations thatare painful for pedestrians who use mobility aids and, therefore, it maybe appropriate to use bricks or pavers only for sidewalk borders in certainsituations. There are stamping molds that create the visual appearanceof bricks and pavers; these have the advantages of traditional concretewithout some of the maintenance issues and roughness associated with bricksand pavers. There are commercially available products that produce a varietyof aesthetically pleasing surfaces that are almost impossible to distinguishfrom real bricks and pavers. However, stamped materials can also havemaintenance issues, since, for example, the sidewalk may never look thesame again after repairs are made.

    It is also possible to enhance sidewalks aesthetics while still providing a smooth walking surface by combining a concrete main walking area with brick edging where street furniture (lights, trees, poles, etc.) can be placed. For example, in a CBD, a 4.6-m (15-ft) total sidewalk width might include a 2.4-m (8-ft) clear concrete sidewalk with a 2.1-m (7-ft) edge.

    Sidewalks should be built to accommodate all pedestrians and should be as flat as practical. Sidewalks should be held to a running grade of 5 percent or less, if possible. However, sidewalks that follow the grade of a street in hilly terrain cannot meet this requirement, for obvious reasons, and may follow the grade of the street. The maximum grade for a curb ramp is 1:12 (8.3 percent).

    The maximum sidewalk cross-slope is 1:50 (2 percent) to minimize travel effort for wheelchair users and still provide drainage. At least 0.9 m (3 ft) of flat sidewalk area is required at the top of a sloped driveway to accommodate wheelchair use. In some cases, it may be necessary to bend the sidewalk around the back of the driveway to achieve a level surface of 0.9 m (3 ft).

    Curb ramps must be provided at all intersection crossings (marked or unmarked) and midblock crosswalks for wheelchair access. These ramps also accommodate strollers, carts, the elderly, and pedestrians with mobility limitations. Curb ramps should be as flat as possible, but must have a slope no greater than 1:12 (8.3 percent). Abrupt changes in elevation at the top or bottom should be avoided. The minimum curb ramp width is 914 mm (36 in); however, 1,219 mm (48 in) is the desirable minimum. If a curb ramp is located where pedestrians must walk across the ramp, the ramp must have flared sides of no more than 1:10 (10 percent) slope. These flares are not needed where ramps are placed in a landscaped area. Curb ramps also require a minimum of 914 mm (36 in) of level and clear passage (1,219 mm (48 in) or more are desirable) at the top.

    Two separate curb ramps, one for each crosswalk, should be provided at each corner of an intersection. Diagonal curb ramps provide no directional guidance to vision-impaired pedestrians, and force wheelchair users to maneuver in the crosswalk. Raised islands in a crossing must have at least a 1,219-mm (48-in) cut-through that is level with the street; this is generally preferable to curb ramps, which force wheelchair users to go up and down.

    The distance to the bottom of signs placed in or right next to a sidewalk should be at least 2 m (7 ft) above the sidewalk surface to avoid injury to pedestrians. Bushes, trees, and other landscaping should be maintained to prevent encroachment into the sidewalk. Jurisdictions should adopt ordinances requiring local property owners to trim the landscaping they place along their frontage to maintain clear and unobstructed sidewalks. The jurisdictions should provide an inspection procedure or a system of responding to sidewalk encroachment and maintenance complaints.

    Guy wires and utility tie-downs should not be located in or across sidewalksat heights below 2 m (7 ft). When placed adjacent to sidewalks or pedestrianwalkways, the guy wires should be covered with a bright yellow (or otherhigh-visibility) plastic guard to make the wire more visible to pedestrians.Guy wires of any color will not be visible to blind pedestrians and mustnot be located within the pedestrian route. Other obstacles include signalcontroller boxes, awnings, temporary signs, newspaper racks, fire hydrants,and similar items.

    The easiest way to visualize accessibility requirements (grade, cross-slope, and clear width) is with the concept of a continuous passage. Sidewalks must provide a continuous route at a 2 percent maximum cross-slope at a minimum width of 0.9 m (3 ft). This does not mean that 0.9 m (3 ft) is an acceptable sidewalk width, just that at no point shall the level area be less than 0.9 m (3 ft) wide; this applies mainly at obstructions, driveways, and curb ramps.

    Municipalities that do not remove snow on sidewalks should have an ordinance requiring property owners to clear the snow and keep the sidewalks accessible to pedestrians. When the latter is the case, municipalities should educate property owners as to why this is important and have enforcement efforts in place to ensure compliance.

    It is generally preferable to place bus shelters between the sidewalk and the street, or between the sidewalk and adjacent property, so that waiting passengers do not obstruct the flow of pedestrians along the sidewalk. Benches and other street furniture should be placed outside the walking paths to maintain the accessibility of the walkway and to provide good pedestrian service. In addition, curb ramps should be provided at bus stops because it is not always possible for the bus to pull close enough to the curb to deploy a lift.

    Good street lighting improves the visibility, comfort, and security of pedestrians. In urban areas, it is important to light at least the intersections and other pedestrian crossing areas. Lighting is also recommended in areas where there is a high concentration of nighttime pedestrian activity, such as churches, schools, and community centers. Where continuous lighting is provided along wide arterial streets, it is desirable to place the lights along both sides of the street. Continuous streetlights should be spaced to provide a relatively uniform level of light. In shopping districts or in downtown areas with high concentrations of pedestrians, it is desirable to provide pedestrian-level lighting in addition to the street lighting to improve the comfort and security of pedestrians. The preferred pedestrian-level lights are mercury vapor or incandescent. Low-pressure sodium lights may be more energy-efficient; however, they are undesirable because they create considerable color distortion. Pedestrian-level lighting may also be installed in selected areas of pedestrian activity to create a sense of intimacy and place.

    Sidewalks should be built within the public right-of-way or in a sidewalk easement along the right-of-way. This will provide access to the sidewalk for maintenance activities and will prevent the adjacent property owners from obstructing or removing the sidewalk in the future.

    Care must be taken to avoid planting trees or large bushes in the landscape buffer area that will obscure the visibility between a pedestrian attempting to cross or enter a street and an approaching motorist. Trees with large canopies planted between the sidewalk and street should be generally trimmed up to at least 2.4 m (8 ft) high and bushes should be kept to about 762 to 914 mm (30 to 36 in) in height. Trees with large caliper trunks may not be appropriate near intersections and in other situations where they may block visual sight triangles.

    Meandering sidewalks are sometimes used where a wide right-of-way is available and there is a desire to provide a high level of landscaping, such as in a park or along a waterway or other natural feature. It is often believed that meandering sidewalks create a more pleasant walking environment. The reality is that they unnecessarily create a longer walking distance and are inappropriate for sidewalks along a street.

    Sidewalks should be built along both sides of bridges. Pedestrian rails or guard rail are required along the outside of the bridge. On bridges with high speeds, concrete barriers between the travelway and the sidewalk may be considered to shield pedestrians from errant vehicles. However, this adds cost, weight, and width to the bridge, and the transition from barrier to guard rail or curb at each end often creates an awkward transition for pedestrians, who must detour around the barrier to access the bridge sidewalk.

    Rollover curbs should not be used next to sidewalks as they encourage motorists to park on planting strips or sidewalks. They may be problematic for some visually impaired people, since they dont create a definitive edge between the street and adjacent uses.

    Sidewalk Depth: Concrete sidewalks should be built to a minimum depth of 101.6 mm (4 in), and to a minimum depth of 152.4 mm (6 in) at driveways.

    The actual cost of providing sidewalks will be different for each region of the country and varies with the season. Actual bid prices are also influenced by how busy contractors are at the time of construction.

    The cost of constructing sidewalks alone is relatively low; typical bids run between $24 and $36 per meters squared ($20 to $30 a square yard), which roughly translates to $43 to $64 per lineal meter ($12 to $20 per lineal foot) for 1.8-m- (6-ft-) wide sidewalks. Therefore, sidewalks on both sides of the roadway can run roughly between $93,000 and $155,000 per kilometer ($150,000 and $250,000 per mile) (costs from Oregon DOT, 1999).

    Factors to consider when calculating the cost of sidewalks:

    When project costs appear to be escalating due to one or more of the above-listed items, especially retaining walls or acquiring right-of-way, consideration may be given to narrowing the sidewalk in constrained areas as a last resort. The full sidewalk width should be resumed in non-constrained areasthis is preferable to providing a narrow sidewalk throughout, or dropping the project because of one difficult section.

    Tips to Reduce Total Costs:

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    Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System

    75 Walkway Ideas & Designs (Brick, Paver & Flagstone … - December 2, 2018 by admin

    In the picture above natural gray flagstones is the best choice for this lovely Japanese garden. When creating a walkway its more than just a way from here to there make a fun & inviting path to follow.

    A walkway or stepping stone path in your backyard can help you better enjoy your outdoor space. Creating your own DIY walkway design can be accomplished without a whole lot of money and as a weekend project. Here are some of the most popular types of materials used to help you come up with walkway ideas for your own yard.

    Brick Brick is great for outdoor walkways because it offers a distinct look that is attractive and elegant. However, brick is best when used in mild climates and will need to be sealed every few years to help prevent any water penetration.

    Pavers Pavers are commonly used for walkways and paths and can come in many different materials. Concrete, clay tile, brick and stone are often used as pavers making them both durable and low maintenance.

    Stepping stones Regular cut stones can be placed down across your garden or lawn to create a path anywhere you want. These are popular choices for a quick walkway project as they are both inexpensive and easy to do yourself.

    Concrete Concrete slabs, pavers and stamped concrete blocks are often used for constructing durable walkways. Concrete is a favorite choice because they can stand up to adverse weather conditions and be customized to get the look you want. With coloring techniques, molding and stamping you can get a custom look that is unique to your yard.

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    75 Walkway Ideas & Designs (Brick, Paver & Flagstone ...

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