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    Category: Tile Work

    What is Drain Tile 101 | How Drain Tile Works | U.S … - September 21, 2019 by admin

    Feb 3, 2012 By Matthew Stock.

    YOU NEED DRAIN TILE! This is a common sentiment that homeowners hear when they have water in their basement. Sometimes you are told by a friend who had a Drain Tile System installed in their home. Maybe you heard your handyman mention Drain Tile being a common solution to basement seepage problems. It could have been that guy on your block who seems to have his nose in everyone elses business. You know the self proclaimed Mayor of theneighborhood!

    But just exactly what is Drain Tile? What does the Drain Tile do? How does it work? Read on as we try to answer your questions and give you a clear understanding of what Drain Tilesare.

    Drainage Tile Systems have many uses in both agricultural and constructionapplications:

    Although Drain Tile is a common term used interchangeably, it is often referred toas:

    Although material, size and shape of the piping varies, there are commonqualities:

    Although this overview of Drain Tile has plenty to offer, stay tuned for more in-depth blogs about Drain Tile, its specific uses and applications.

    As for your home, tell the Mayor he can keep out of your business you are calling the experts! Set up a free evaluation and we will send one of our experienced Advisors to evaluate whether you need Drain Tile or another time tested solution to your basement seepageproblems.

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    Tags: french drain, drain tile, what is drain tile, interior drain tile, drain tile in basement, exterior drain tile

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    Mosaic Tile Backsplash | HGTV - April 15, 2019 by admin

    Tiles are an inexpensive but beautiful way to create a backsplash. Mosaic tile backsplashes can be created by using a range of tiles in various materials, colors and sizes. You can also use broken pieces of glass and marble tiles and arrange a fun, budget-friendly mosaic pattern.

    You can create a mosaic pattern using ceramic, glass, marble and/or metal tiles. Depending on the material(s) you choose, there may be a range of colors and shapes available. Select a color theme that matches the overall theme of your kitchen and find tiles that will work well in that space. For example, if you are seeking a classic, simple kitchen area, then you may want to choose beige, cream, white and other neutral tones to create a backsplash. A contemporary kitchen may call for black and white tiles paired with a bold color, like orange or red.

    On the other hand, if you choose to use repurposed pieces of broken tiles, then all you will need a silicon caulk to arrange the backsplash into a mosaic pattern. Make sure to grout and seal the final product as you would with regular tiles.

    The best part of a mosaic tile backsplash is that it allows room for the creative homeowner to add a unique, artistic flair to a kitchen area.

    Continued here:
    Mosaic Tile Backsplash | HGTV

    How to Work with Glass Tile | This Old House - November 5, 2018 by admin

    In this video, This Old House tile contractor Joe Ferrante explains how to work with glass tile.


    1 Mix thinset mortar, then trowel a thin skim coat onto the backsplash wall.2 Smooth thinset with straight-edge trowel and wet sponge; let dry.3 Lay out the 12 x 12-inch tile sheets on countertop.4 Measure length and height of backsplash wall to determine tile layout.5 Spread thinset onto wall with straight-edge trowel.6 Press full tile sheet into the thinset.7 Cut individual tiles from sheet to fit around electrical outlets.8 Continue setting tile sheets across the backsplash wall.9 Use undercut saw to trim window stool so tile fits behind the trim.10 Use score-and-snap tile cutter to trim individual tiles to fit tightly around electrical outlet.11 Spread thinset onto the back of individual tiles, and press to wall; use spacers to maintain consistent grout joints.12 Use wet saw to trim tiles along the top of backsplash wall.13 Once all of the tiles are installed, allow the thinset to cure.14 Finish by using a rubber float to force grout into the spaces between the tiles; wipe off excess grout with a clean, wet sponge.

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    How to Work with Glass Tile | This Old House

    Bathroom Tile: What Works | HGTV - July 26, 2018 by admin


    RMSer BelleInteriors designs a serene bathroom with a palette of spring green and yellow. Black marble contrasts well with the color scheme and bright white trim. One of the best qualities of marble is that it has a beautiful, unique look, but like most stone tiles, it requires sealing and regular cleaning.

    Designer Andreas Charalambous creates a spa-inspired shower with ceramic mosaic tiles. Ceramic is perfect for the bathroom since it's easy to clean, durable and inexpensive.

    RMSer InspiredGuys creates a backsplash with a mixture of slate and glass tiles, which is the perfect backdrop for the elegant waterfall faucet. Slate is known for its beauty and longevity, but is soft so it has a tendency to split.

    RMSer ruggled converts a 1970s bathroom into an Asian-inspired getaway, featuring a soaking tub, steam shower and a beautiful new floor made of 16x16 porcelain tiles. Porcelain tile, a type of ceramic tile, is durable and comes in a variety of colors and textures, but make sure to ask the manufacturer about the correct setting material, since it requires a different one than normal ceramics.

    Designer Shelly Riehl David uses multicolored glass tiles to create interest on the walls. Glass tile is a beautiful option for adding color and style to a bathroom, but is one of the more expensive options.

    RMSer Leanne Michael Interiors adds a Spanish influence to a bathroom with Saltillo tile and a hand-painted Talavera sink. Terra-cotta tile is one of the oldest tile materials and lasts a long time when well-made.

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    Bathroom Tile: What Works | HGTV

    Tile – Wikipedia - July 26, 2018 by admin

    Manufactured piece of hard-wearing material

    A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops. Alternatively, tile can sometimes refer to similar units made from lightweight materials such as perlite, wood, and mineral wool, typically used for wall and ceiling applications. In another sense, a tile is a construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games (see tile-based game). The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of fired clay.

    Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex or mosaics. Tiles are most often made of ceramic, typically glazed for internal uses and unglazed for roofing, but other materials are also commonly used, such as glass, cork, concrete and other composite materials, and stone. Tiling stone is typically marble, onyx, granite or slate. Thinner tiles can be used on walls than on floors, which require more durable surfaces that will resist impacts.

    Decorative tilework or tile art should be distinguished from mosaic, where forms are made of great numbers of tiny irregularly positioned tesserae, each of a single color, usually of glass or sometimes ceramic or stone.

    The earliest evidence of glazed brick is the discovery of glazed bricks in the Elamite Temple at Chogha Zanbil, dated to the 13th century BC. Glazed and colored bricks were used to make low reliefs in Ancient Mesopotamia, most famously the Ishtar Gate of Babylon (ca. 575 BC), now partly reconstructed in Berlin, with sections elsewhere. Mesopotamian craftsmen were imported for the palaces of the Persian Empire such as Persepolis.

    The use of sun-dried bricks or adobe was the main method of building in Mesopotamia where river mud was found in abundanve along the Tigris and Euphrates. Here the scarcity of stone may have been an incentive to develop the technology of making kiln-fired bricks to use as an alternative. To strengthen walls made from sun-dried bricks, fired bricks began to be used as an outer protective skin for more important buildings like temples, palaces, city walls and gates. Making fired bricks is an advanced pottery technique. Fired bricks are solid masses of clay heated in kilns to temperatures of between 950 and 1,150C, and a well-made fired brick is an extremly durable object. Like sun-dried bricks they were made in wooden moulds but for bricks with relief decorations special moulds had to be made.

    Tiling was used in the second century by the Sinhalese kings of ancient Sri Lanka, using smoothed and polished stone laid on floors and in swimming pools. Historians consider the techniques and tools for tiling as well advanced, evidenced by the fine workmanship and close fit of the tiles.[citation needed] Tiling from this period[dubious discuss] can be seen in Ruwanwelisaya and Kuttam Pokuna in the city of Anuradhapura.

    The Achaemenid Empire decorated buildings with glazed brick tiles, including Darius the Great's palace at Susa, and buildings at Persepolis.[1]

    The succeeding Sassanid Empire used tiles patterned with geometric designs, flowers, plants, birds and human beings, glazed up to a centimeter thick.[1]

    Early Islamic mosaics in Iran consist mainly of geometric decorations in mosques and mausoleums, made of glazed brick. Typical turquoise tiling becomes popular in 10th-11th century and is used mostly for Kufic inscriptions on mosque walls. Seyyed Mosque in Isfahan (AD 1122), Dome of Maraqeh (AD 1147) and the Jame Mosque of Gonabad (1212 AD) are among the finest examples.[1] The dome of Jame' Atiq Mosque of Qazvin is also dated to this period.

    The golden age of Persian tilework began during the reign the Timurid Empire. In the moraq technique, single-color tiles were cut into small geometric pieces and assembled by pouring liquid plaster between them. After hardening, these panels were assembled on the walls of buildings. But the mosaic was not limited to flat areas. Tiles were used to cover both the interior and exterior surfaces of domes. Prominent Timurid examples of this technique include the Jame Mosque of Yazd (AD 13241365), Goharshad Mosque (AD 1418), the Madrassa of Khan in Shiraz (AD 1615), and the Molana Mosque (AD 1444).[1]

    Other important tile techniques of this time include girih tiles, with their characteristic white girih, or straps.

    Mihrabs, being the focal points of mosques, were usually the places where most sophisticated tilework was placed. The 14th-century mihrab at Madrasa Imami in Isfahan is an outstanding example of aesthetic union between the Islamic calligrapher's art and abstract ornament. The pointed arch, framing the mihrab's niche, bears an inscription in Kufic script used in 9th-century Qur'an.[2]

    One of the best known architectural masterpieces of Iran is the Shah Mosque in Isfahan, from the 17th century. Its dome is a prime example of tile mosaic and its winter praying hall houses one of the finest ensembles of cuerda seca tiles in the world. A wide variety of tiles had to be manufactured in order to cover complex forms of the hall with consistent mosaic patterns. The result was a technological triumph as well as a dazzling display of abstract ornament.[2]

    During the Safavid period, mosaic ornaments were often replaced by a haft rang (seven colors) technique. Pictures were painted on plain rectangle tiles, glazed and fired afterwards. Besides economic reasons, the seven colors method gave more freedom to artists and was less time-consuming. It was popular until the Qajar period, when the palette of colors was extended by yellow and orange.[1] The seven colors of Haft Rang tiles were usually black, white, ultramarine, turquoise, red, yellow and fawn.

    The Persianate tradition continued and spread to much of the Islamic world, notably the znik pottery of Turkey under the Ottoman Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries. Palaces, public buildings, mosques and trbe mausoleums were heavily decorated with large brightly colored patterns, typically with floral motifs, and friezes of astonishing complexity, including floral motifs and calligraphy as well as geometric patterns.

    Islamic buildings in Bukhara in central Asia (16th-17th century) also exhibit very sophisticated floral ornaments. In South Asia monuments and shrines adorned with Kashi tile work from Persia became a distinct feature of the shrines of Multan and Sindh. The Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore stands out as one of the masterpieces of Kashi time work from the Mughal period.

    The zellige tradition of Arabic North Africa uses small colored tiles of various shapes to make very complex geometric patterns. It is halfway to mosaic, but as the different shapes must be fitted precisely together, it falls under tiling. The use of small coloured glass fields also make it rather like enamelling, but with ceramic rather than metal as the support.

    Azulejos are derived from zellige, and the name is likewise derived. The term is both a simple Portuguese and Spanish term for zellige, and a term for later tilework following the tradition. Some azujelos are small-scale geometric patterns and/or vegetative motifs, some are blue monochrome and highly pictorial, and some are neither. The Baroque period produced extremely large painted scenes on tiles, usually in blue and white, for walls. Azulejos were also used in Latin American architecture.

    Medieval influences between Middle Eastern tilework and tilework in Europe were mainly through Islamic Iberia and the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. The Alhambra zellige are said to have inspired the tessellations of M. C. Escher.[citation needed]

    Medieval encaustic tiles were made of multiple colours of clay, shaped and baked together to form a patternt that, rather than sitting on the surface, ran right through the thickness of the tile, and thus would not wear away.

    Medieval Europe made considerable use of painted tiles, sometimes producing very elaborate schemes, of which few have survived. Religious and secular stories were depicted. The imaginary tiles with Old testament scenes shown on the floor in Jan van Eyck's 1434 Annunciation in Washington are an example. The 14th century "Tring tiles" in the British Museum show childhood scenes from the Life of Christ, possibly for a wall rather than a floor,[3] while their 13th century "Chertsey Tiles", though from an abbey, show scenes of Richard the Lionheart battling with Saladin in very high-quality work.[4] Medieval letter tiles were used to create Christian inscriptions on church floors.

    Delftware wall tiles, typically with a painted design covering only one (rather small) blue and white tile, were ubiquitous in Holland and widely exported over Northern Europe from the 16th century on, replacing many local industries. Several 18th century royal palaces had porcelain rooms with the walls entirely covered in porcelain in tiles or panels. Surviving examples include ones at Capodimonte, Naples, the Royal Palace of Madrid and the nearby Royal Palace of Aranjuez.

    There are several other types of traditional tiles that remain in manufacture, for example the small, almost mosaic, brightly colored zellige tiles of Morocco and the surrounding countries. With exceptions, notably the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, decorated tiles or glazed bricks do not feature largely in East Asian ceramics.

    The Victorian period saw a great revival in tilework, largely as part of the Gothic Revival, but also the Arts and Crafts Movement. Patterned tiles, or tiles making up patterns, were now mass-produced by machine and reliably level for floors and cheap to produce, especially for churches, schools and public buildings, but also for domestic hallways and bathrooms. For many uses the tougher encaustic tile was used. Wall tiles in various styles also revived; the rise of the bathroom contributing greatly to this, as well as greater appreciation of the benefit of hygiene in kitchens. William De Morgan was the leading English designer working in tiles, strongly influenced by Islamic designs.

    Since the Victorian period tiles have remained standard for kitchens and bathrooms, and many types of public area.

    Portugal and So Lus continue their tradition of azulejo tilework today, with azulejos used to decorate buildings, ships,[5] and even rocks.


    Notable among American tilemakers of the 1920s and 1930s were Ernest A. Batchelder and Pewabic Pottery.

    Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as terracotta or slate. Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used and some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze. A large number of shapes (or "profiles") of roof tiles have evolved.

    These are commonly made of ceramic or stone, although recent technological advances have resulted in rubber or glass tiles for floors as well. Ceramic tiles may be painted and glazed. Small mosaic tiles may be laid in various patterns. Floor tiles are typically set into mortar consisting of sand, cement and often a latex additive for extra adhesion. The spaces between the tiles are commonly filled with sanded or unsanded floor grout, but traditionally mortar was used.

    Natural stone tiles can be beautiful but as a natural product they are less uniform in color and pattern, and require more planning for use and installation. Mass-produced stone tiles are uniform in width and length. Granite or marble tiles are sawn on both sides and then polished or finished on the top surface so that they have a uniform thickness. Other natural stone tiles such as slate are typically "riven" (split) on the top surface so that the thickness of the tile varies slightly from one spot on the tile to another and from one tile to another. Variations in tile thickness can be handled by adjusting the amount of mortar under each part of the tile, by using wide grout lines that "ramp" between different thicknesses, or by using a cold chisel to knock off high spots.

    Some stone tiles such as polished granite, marble, and travertine are very slippery when wet. Stone tiles with a riven (split) surface such as slate or with a sawn and then sandblasted or honed surface will be more slip-resistant. Ceramic tiles for use in wet areas can be made more slip-resistant either by using very small tiles so that the grout lines acts as grooves or by imprinting a contour pattern onto the face of the tile.

    The hardness of natural stone tiles varies such that some of the softer stone (e.g. limestone) tiles are not suitable for very heavy-traffic floor areas. On the other hand, ceramic tiles typically have a glazed upper surface and when that becomes scratched or pitted the floor looks worn, whereas the same amount of wear on natural stone tiles will not show, or will be less noticeable.

    Natural stone tiles can be stained by spilled liquids; they must be sealed and periodically resealed with a sealant in contrast to ceramic tiles which only need their grout lines sealed. However, because of the complex, nonrepeating patterns in natural stone, small amounts of dirt on many natural stone floor tiles do not show.

    The tendency of floor tiles to stain depends not only on a sealant being applied, and periodically reapplied, but also on their porosity or how porous the stone is. Slate is an example of a less porous stone while limestone is an example of a more porous stone. Different granites and marbles have different porosities with the less porous ones being more valued and more expensive.

    Most vendors of stone tiles emphasize that there will be variation in color and pattern from one batch of tiles to another of the same description and variation within the same batch. Stone floor tiles tend to be heavier than ceramic tiles and somewhat more prone to breakage during shipment.

    Rubber floor tiles have a variety of uses, both in residential and commercial settings. They are especially useful in situations where it is desired to have high-traction floors or protection for an easily breakable floor. Some common uses include flooring of garage, workshops, patios, swimming pool decks, sport courts, gyms, and dance floors.

    Plastic floor tiles including interlocking floor tiles that can be installed without adhesive or glue are a recent innovation and are suitable for areas subject to heavy traffic, wet areas and floors that are subject to movement, damp or contamination from oil, grease or other substances that may prevent adhesion to the substrate. Common uses include old factory floors, garages, gyms and sports complexes, schools and shops.

    Ceiling tiles are lightweight tiles used inside buildings. They are placed in an aluminium grid; they provide little thermal insulation but are generally designed either to improve the acoustics of a room or to reduce the volume of air being heated or cooled.

    Mineral fiber tiles are fabricated from a range of products; wet felt tiles can be manufactured from perlite, mineral wool, and fibers from recycled paper; stone wool tiles are created by combining molten stone and binders which is then spun to create the tile; gypsum tiles are based on the soft mineral and then finished with vinyl, paper or a decorative face.[citation needed]

    Ceiling tiles very often have patterns on the front face; these are there in most circumstances to aid with the tiles ability to improve acoustics.[citation needed]

    Ceiling tiles also provide a barrier to the spread of smoke and fire. Breaking, displacing, or removing ceiling tiles enables hot gases and smoke from a fire to rise and accumulate above detectors and sprinklers. Doing so delays their activation, enabling fires to grow more rapidly.[6]

    Ceiling tiles, especially in old Mediterranean houses, were made of terracotta and were placed on top of the wooden ceiling beams and upon those were placed the roof tiles. They were then plastered or painted, but nowadays are usually left bare for decorative purposes.

    Modern-day tile ceilings may be flush mounted (nail up or glue up) or installed as dropped ceilings.

    Ceramic materials for tiles include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.[citation needed] Terracotta is a traditional material used for roof tiles.[7]

    This is a US term, and defined in ASTM standard C242 as a ceramic mosaic tile or paver that is generally made by dust-pressing and of a composition yielding a tile that is dense, fine-grained, and smooth, with sharply-formed face, usually impervious. The colours of such tiles are generally clear and bright.[8]

    Similar to mosaics or other patterned tiles, pebble tiles are tiles made up of small pebbles attached to a backing. The tile is generally designed in an interlocking pattern so that final installations fit of multiple tiles fit together to have a seamless appearance. A relatively new tile design, pebble tiles were originally developed in Indonesia using pebbles found in various locations in the country. Today, pebble tiles feature all types of stones and pebbles from around the world.

    Printing techniques and digital manipulation of art and photography are used in what is known as "custom tile printing". Dye sublimation printers, inkjet printers and ceramic inks and toners permit printing on a variety of tile types yielding photographic-quality reproduction.[9] Using digital image capture via scanning or digital cameras, bitmap/raster images can be prepared in photo editing software programs. Specialized custom-tile printing techniques permit transfer under heat and pressure or the use of high temperature kilns to fuse the picture to the tile substrate. This has become a method of producing custom tile murals for kitchens, showers, and commercial decoration in restaurants, hotels, and corporate lobbies.

    A method for custom tile printing involving a diamond-tipped drill controlled by a computer. Compared with the laser engravings, diamond etching is in almost every circumstance more permanent.[citation needed]

    Certain shapes of tiles, most obviously rectangles, can be replicated to cover a surface with no gaps. These shapes are said to tessellate (from the Latin tessella, 'tile') and such a tiling is called a tessellation. Geometric patterns of some Islamic polychrome decorative tilings are rather complicated (see Islamic geometric patterns and, in particular, Girih tiles), even up to supposedly quaziperiodic ones, similar to Penrose tilings.

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    Tile - Wikipedia

    Tile Work Iran On Trip - July 26, 2018 by admin

    History of tile (glazed brick), manufacture and decoration in Iran, goes back to the prehistoric period. It has an important position among the various decorative arts in Iranian architecture. Four main decorative features could be categorized here. They are stone carvings, brick work, stucco and tile panels. The intricate method of manufacture, designs and type of materials used in these four methods have evolved as a result of natural factors, economical and political effects.Tiles were used to decorate monuments from early ages in Iran. Mosaic patterns were the first step in the evolution of tile decoration. Imaginative and creative artisans put together mosaic patterns using bits of colored stone and brick and created patterns of triangles, semi-circles and circles in harmony with the structures they were placed on. These patterns later evolved into design of natural subjects, such as plants, trees, animals and human beings. The earliest examples of mosaic patterns have come from the columns of the temple at Ubaid in Mesopotamia, and are attributed to the second half of the 2nd mill. B.C. Here, colored pieces of stone have been juxtaposed with shell and ivory to create geometric patterns. It is these early mosaic patterns which are the roots of later tile art. The first glazed bricks, a further advancement in tile art, have also been discovered in such sites as the palaces of Ashur and Babylon in the same area. A most famous example of early tile art on wares is the mosaic rhyton discovered in the excavations at Marlik. This vessel has two shells. The outer shell is covered with colored pieces of stone. This object is known as Thousand Flowers. One of the earliest examples of Iranian tile work on architecture, actually glazed pieces of unbaked brick, have been excavated at Susa and Chogha Zanbil, and are attributed to the end of the second millennium B.C.In the Achamenian period full use was made of glazed and decorated fired bricks in yellow, green and brown on the palaces of Susa and Persepolis. Fired and glazed bricks were an Important advancement in tile technique.

    The Eternal Soldiers at Persepolis have long elegant gowns in glaze made of fired earth and plaster.Glaze was used on vessels and even coffins in the Parthian period, but little architectural evidence has been discovered to show that glazed bricks were used. Turquoise and light green glaze were the most popular colors. Fresco painting was more popular for the decoration of buildings.Excavations in Firuzabad and Bishapur have yielded much evidence of tile art and mosaic manufacture for the Sasanid period. Here, tiles have glaze that is one centimeter thick, and mosaic patterns of flowers, plants, geometric designs birds and human beings.The art of tile working blossomed in the Islamic period of Iran. It became the most important decorative feature of religious buildings.Iranian tile makers were in great demand and worked in the far corners of the Islamic empire. The earliest example of Islamic tile decoration can be seen on the Mosque of the Dome of Rock belonging to 7-8th century A.D.Before tile work, as we know today, became popular brick and stucco were most important in decoration of buildings up to 10-11th A.D. Two mosques of Nain and Neiriz have brick decoration in geometric patterns of the Buyid period. By 11-12th A.D. , brick decoration had spread from the east throughout Iran. The best examples of brick decoration of this period are the mausoleums of Pir Alamadar, 1026 A.D., Chehel Dokhtaran, 466 A.D., and the Tower of Mihmandost 1096 A.D.

    The next stage of development was the use of colored glaze on decorative brick; turquoise being the most popular color. Pieces of turquoise glazed bricks were used with decorative brick works on monuments from the Saljuq period onwards.So artisans were familiar with the technique of manufacture of glazed bricks by this time. Sometimes these turquoise glazed bricks were used to create Kufic inscription among the brick patterns or were scattered among the brick patterns. The earliest example unfired turquoise Kufic inscription, is a panel stored at Iran Bastan Museum (National Museum of Iran) ascribed to the end of the 10-11th A.D. Other religious structures which have turquoise tile works are Seyed Mosque, Isfahan, 1122 A.D., the red Dome of Maraqeh 1147 A.D. and the Jame Mosque of Gonabad 1212 A.D.Mongol invasion slowed and halted many artistic traditions and trends. Normal conditions only returned by the 13th century A.D., when the Ilkhanid rulers accepted Islam; they also became interested in creating secular and non-secular monuments and buildings. By this time, decorative bricks and tiles were used not only on the exterior, but also inside the building to cover the walls and domes.

    The art of tile manufacture reached its highest point of perfection and beauty at the end of Ilkhanid period and the beginning of Timurid in the form of Moraq tiles (mosaic style). Tile panels created with this technique are very durable and could withstand the elements of time. Here, tiles in such colors as yellow, blue, brown, black, turquoise, green and white were cut and carved into small pieces according to a previously prepared pattern. These pieces were placed close together and liquid plaster poured over to fill in all the opening and gaps. After the plaster dried and hardened, a large single piece tile panel had been created , which was then plastered onto the required wall of the building. Timurid monuments in Herat, Samarkend and Bukhara were covered by this decorative technique. Among the most famous monuments so decorated are Goharshad Mosque (1418 AD.), Molana Mosque (1444 AD.), Jame Mosque of Yazd (1456 AD.), Jame Mosque of Varamin (1322 AD.) and Madrassa of Khan in Shiraz (1615 AD.)From the beginning of Safavid period, another method of tile decoration was added to the repertoire of artisans. Economical and political reasons prompted the creation of this Seven Colors (Haft Rang) tile to decorate many religious and non-secular buildings, which were made in great numbers in this period. Reasons which caused the popularity of this technique were:1- Seven Colors tiles were cheaper to produce.2- Less time was needed for their manufacture.3- Artisans could extend their repertoire of motives and designs for decoration.

    Square tiles were placed together and necessary design was painted in glazed colors on them. Each tile was fired. Then all were placed again next to each other to create the main large pattern. Arabesque motives were extremely popular. This method of tile decoration was popular until the end of Qajar period, when the repertoire of colors extended to include yellow and bright orange.Another important type of tile decoration at this time was luster tile. It was in demand by the end of Saljuq period and reached to its highest point of perfection in Kharazmshah and Ilkhanid eras.Luster tile panels were made in square, rectangle, hexagon, octagon and polygonal forms. They contained luster designs of human, animals, floral and geometrical motives with borders of inscriptions, which included poems, proverbs and sayings attributed to Prophet and other religious personalities. Many of those tiles were discovered in the excavation at Takht Soleiman, especially from the palace of Abagh Khan (Ilkhanid period) and in Gorgan, Kashan and Khorasan regions.Exquisite luster mihrabs appeared in 13th AD. Workshops of such cities as Gorgan, Soltanieh, Saveh and Kashan specialized in creation of these pieces. Shiraz, Kerman and Meshed became important luster tile producing centers during 17th AD. centuries. In Meshed, Mosque of Imam Reza (1215 AD.) has fine luster decorated tiles.Another popular technique was brick and tile decoration, a technique which had evolved from earlier decorative combinations of tile and brick; though, polychrome tiles were used instead of monochrome ones. This type of decoration was used in religious and non-religious buildings from 13th AD. onwards. Jame Mosque of Varamin (1322 AD.) , Soltanieh Dome (1304-1311 AD.), Jame Mosque of Ashtarjan (1315 AD.) and Vakil Mosque (1773 AD.) contain fine examples of this type of tile decoration.Variety of design of this technique included large inscriptions known as Moqili, seen mostly in religious buildings such as Jame Mosque of Isfahan (14th AD.) and Hakim Mosque of Isfahan (1656 AD.)

    Evidence of brick work, stucco carving and tile panels from the last 14 centuries have provided much evidence of creative and imaginative nature of Persian Artisans. They placed their art in the service of religious architecture. This religious inspiration found its highest expression in ornate inscriptions, which decorated so many works during these centuries.In 8-10th centuries AD., most of these inscriptions included sayings, proverbs, wishes, maxims, names of religious personalities and invocations of Allahs help, in decorative, simple or broken Kufic script and are found on poetry, such as ceramic wares of Neishabour.In 13-14th centuries AD., ceramic wares and tiles were decorated with many different forms of inscriptions. The most popular were molded decorations and inscriptions with messages of happiness, good health, prayers, wish for victory, proverbs, simple messages of good will, poems and the name of Allah. Workshops at Kashan, Rey and Gorgan produced these types of ware.

    Broken Taliq script became popular in 11-14th centuries AD. This script was in luster and under-glaze decoration, contained lines from poems and verses of such poets as Ferdowsi, Hafiz, Molana and Baba Afzali Kashani. Furthermore, it became popular for artisans of Kharazmshah and Ilkhanid periods to add the date of manufacture and the name of maker. The oldest dated tile is of 1203 AD. Tile panels of these period had mostly square, lotus, star and polygonal form and were put together to create panels.In Safavid era, Naskh and Thulth scripts were used. Works of famous calligraphers, such as Alireza Abbasi, Mohammad Saleh Isfahani, Mohammad Reza Imami and Hossein Banna have been found.It should be mentioned that the technique of tile and its secrets of trade were safely guarded and orally handed from father to son and master to student; thus rarely have designs, patterns and details of technique been documented and few complete treatises exist on the art of Iranian tile work in the past

    Iranian Art Persian Art -Isfahan Handicrafts Iran Art Tile Work of Iran

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    Tile Work Iran On Trip

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    Azulejo – Wikipedia - June 21, 2018 by admin

    Azulejo (Portuguese:[zuleu] or Portuguese:[zulju], Spanish:[aulexo] or Spanish:[asulexo], from the Arabic al zellige [1][2]) is a form of Spanish and Portuguese painted tin-glazed ceramic tilework. Azulejos are found on the interior and exterior of churches, palaces, ordinary houses, schools, and nowadays, restaurants, bars and even railways or subway stations. They were not only used as an ornamental art form, but also had a specific functional capacity like temperature control in homes.

    There is also a tradition of their production in former Spanish and Portuguese colonies in North America, South America, Goa, Africa (Angola and Mozambique), and the Philippines.

    Azulejos found particular success also in Liguria (Italy), due to the close relationships between both Christian and Islamic territories of the Iberian peninsula and the Republic of Genoa. Being imported at first (in most cases from Seville or the Nasrid Granada), they started to be produced in situ during the next centuries. Ligurian-made tiles inspired by azulejos are known as laggioin in Ligurian ([ladwi]; sing. laggion) and, from this language, laggioni in Italian ([ladoni]; sing. laggione).

    Azulejos still constitute a major aspect of Portuguese architecture as they are applied on walls, floors and even ceilings. Many azulejos chronicle major historical and cultural aspects of Portuguese history.

    The word azulejo (as well as the Ligurian laggion[3]) is derived from the Arabic (az-zulayj): zellige, meaning "polished stone" because the original idea was to imitate the Byzantine and Roman mosaics. This origin shows the unmistakable Arab influences in many tiles: interlocking curvilinear, geometric or floral motifs. The craft of zellige is still in use in the Arab world in two main traditions the "Egyptian Zalij" and the "North African Zellige", the latter being the most famous.

    The Spanish city of Seville became the major centre of the Hispano-Moresque tile industry. The earliest azulejos in the 13th century were alicatados (panels of tile-mosaic).[4] Tiles were glazed in a single colour, cut into geometric shapes, and assembled to form geometric patterns. Many examples can be admired in the Alhambra of Granada.[5] The old techniques of cuerda seca ('dry string') and cuenca developed in Seville in the 15th century.

    These techniques were introduced into Portugal by king Manuel I after a visit to Seville in 1503. They were applied on walls and used for paving floors, such as can be seen in several rooms, and especially the Arab Room of the Sintra National Palace (including the famous cuenca tiles with the armillary sphere, symbol of king Manuel I). The Portuguese adopted the Moorish tradition of horror vacui ('fear of empty spaces') and covered the walls completely with azulejos.

    Potters from Italy came into Seville in the early 16th century and established workshops there. They brought with them the maiolica techniques which allowed the artists to represent a much larger number of figurative themes in their compositions. The first Italian potter to move into Spain was Francisco Niculoso who settled in Seville in 1498.[8] Examples of his work can still be admired in situ in the Alcazar of Seville. Under the influence of the Renaissance style introduced by Italians artists, most azulejos were polychrome tile panels depicting allegorical or mythological scenes, scenes from the lives of saints or the Bible, or hunting scenes. Mannerism and the grotesque style, with its bizarre representations, had much influence on azulejos.

    Until the mid-16th century the Portuguese continued to rely on foreign imports, mostly from Spain, such as the Annunciation by Francisco Niculoso in vora, but also on a smaller scale from Antwerp (Flanders), such as the two panels by Jan Bogaerts in the Pao Ducal of Vila Viosa (Alentejo). One of the early Portuguese masters of the 16th century was Maral de Matos, to whom Susanna and the Elders (1565), in Quinta da Bacalhoa, Azeito, is attributed, as well as the Adoration of the Shepherds (in the National Museum of Azulejos in Lisbon). The Miracle of St. Roque (in the Church of S. Roque, Lisbon) is the first dated Portuguese azulejo composition (1584). It is the work of Francisco de Matos, probably the nephew and pupil of Maral de Matos. Both drew their inspiration from Renaissance and Mannerist paintings and engravings from Italy and Flanders. A fine collection of 16th-century azulejos (azulejos Hispano-mouriscos) can be found in the Museu da Rainha D. Leonor in Beja, Portugal (the former Convento da Conceio).

    In the late 16th century, checkered azulejos were used as decoration for large surfaces, such as in churches and monasteries. Diagonally placed plain white tiles were surrounded by blue square ones and narrow border tiles.

    Detail of the azulejos painted by Cristbal de Augusta in 1577[9] of the Gothic Palace of the Alczar of Seville, Spain.

    Casa de Pilatos in Seville has around 150 different azulejo designs of the 1530s[10], one of the largest antique collections in the world[11]

    16th-century azulejos in Convent of Santa Isabel, Valladolid

    Azulejos made by Hernando de Santiago and Juan de Vllalba in 1575[12] in Sala Nova, Palau de la Generalitat Valenciana, Valencia.

    Adoration of the Magi, Museum of azulejos, Lisbon.

    Shortly afterwards, these plain white tiles were replaced by polychrome tiles (enxaquetado rico) often giving a complex framework such as in the Church of Santa Maria de Marvila in Santarm with one of the most outstanding tile-based interior decorations in Portugal.

    When the diagonal tiles were replaced by a repetitive pattern of horizontal polychrome tiles, one could obtain a new design with different motifs, interlacing Mannerist drawings with representations of roses and camelias (sometimes roses and garlands). An inset votive usually depicts a scene from the life of Christ or a saint. These carpet compositions (azulejo de tapete), as they were called, elaborately framed with friezes and borders, were produced in great numbers during the 17th century. The best examples are to be found in the Igreja do Salvador, vora, Igreja de S. Quintino, Obral de Monte Agrao, Igreja de S. Vicente, Cuba (Portugal) and the university chapel in Coimbra.

    The use of azulejos for the decoration of antependia (front of an altar), imitating precious altar cloths, is typical for Portugal. The panel may be in one piece, or composed of two or three sections. They were used in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Some antependia of the 17th century imitate oriental fabrics (calico, chintz). The golden fringes of the altar cloth were imitated by yellow motifs on the painted border tiles. Excellent examples can be found in the Hospital de Sta. Marta, Lisbon, or in the church of Almoster and the Convent of Buaco.

    During the same period another motif in friezes was introduced: floral vases flanked by birds, dolphins or putti, the so-called albarradas. They were probably inspired by Flemish paintings of flower vases, such as by Jan Brueghel the Elder. These were still free-standing in the 17th century, but they would be used in repetitive modules in the 18th century.

    Another type of azulejo composition, called aves e ramagens ('birds and branches'), came into vogue between 1650 and 1680. They were influenced by the representations on printed textiles that were imported from India: Hindu symbols, flowers, animals and birds.

    In the second half of the 17th century, the Spanish artist Gabriel del Barco y Minusca introduced into Portugal the blue-and-white tiles from Delft in the Netherlands. The workshops of Jan van Oort and Willem van der Kloet in Amsterdam created large tile panels with historical scenes for their rich Portuguese clients, such as for the Palace of the Marqueses da Fronteira in Benfica (Lisbon). But when king Pedro II stopped all imports of azulejos between 1687 and 1698, the workshop of Gabriel del Barco took over the production. The last major production from Holland was delivered in 1715. Soon large, home-made blue-and-white figurative tiles, designed by academically trained Portuguese artists, became the dominant fashion, superseding the former taste for repeated patterns and abstract decoration.

    The late 17th and early 18th centuries became the 'Golden Age of the Azulejo', the so-called Cycle of the Masters (Ciclo dos Mestres). Mass production was started not just because of a greater internal demand, but also because of large orders came in from the Portuguese colony of Brazil. Large one-off orders were replaced by the less expensive use of repetitive tile patterns. Churches, monasteries, palaces and even houses were covered inside and outside with azulejos, many with exuberant Baroque elements.

    The most prominent master-designers in these early years of the 18th century were: Antnio Pereira (artist), Manuel dos Santos, the workshop of Antnio de Oliveira Bernardes and his son Policarpo de Oliveira Bernardes; the Master PMP (only known by his monogram) and his collaborators Teotnio dos Santos and Valentim de Almeida; Bartolomeu Antunes and his pupil Nicolau de Freitas. As their production coincided with the reign of king Joo V (17061750), the style of this period is also called the Joanine style.

    During this same period appear the first 'invitation figures' (figura de convite), invented by the Master PMP and produced in the 18th and 19th centuries. These are cut-out panels of azulejos with life-size figures (footmen, halberdiers, noblemen or elegantly dressed ladies), usually placed in entrances of palaces (see Palcio da Mitra), patios and stair landings. Their purpose was to welcome visitors. They can only be found in Portugal.

    In the 1740s the taste of Portuguese society changed from the monumental narrative panels to smaller and more delicately executed panels in Rococo style. These panels depict gallant and pastoral themes as they occur in the works of the French painter Antoine Watteau. Fine examples are the faade and the gardens of the Palace of the Dukes de Mesquitela in Carnide (Lisbon) and the Corredor das Mangas in the Queluz National Palace. The mass-produced tiles acquired a more stereotypic design with predominant polychrome irregular shell motifs.

    The reconstruction of Lisbon after the great earthquake of 1755 gave rise to a more utilitarian role for decoration with azulejos. This bare and functional style would become known as the Pombaline style, named after the Marquis of Pombal, who was put in charge of rebuilding the country. Small devotional azulejo panels started to appear on buildings as protection against future disasters.

    In Mexico, a large producer of Talaveraa Mexican maiolica, there are several instances of the use of azulejos on buildings and mansions. One particular mansion, the Casa de los Azulejos in Mexico City, was built in 1737 for the Count and Countess of El Valle de Orizaba. Ceramic making traditions were imported to Mexico in the early 16th century and have flourished.

    As a reaction, simpler and more delicate Neoclassical designs started to appear with more subdued colours. These themes were introduced in Portugal by the engravings of Robert and James Adams. The Real Fbrica de Loua do Rato, with the master-designer Sebastio Incio de Almeida and the painter Francisco de Paula e Oliveira, became in this period an important manufacturer of the characteristic so-called Rato-tiles. Another important tile painter in this period was Francisco Jorge da Costa.

    Albarrada, flower vase by Valentim de Almeida (between 1729 and 1731); Cathedral of Porto, Portugal.

    Azulejos vault in bidos, Portugal.

    Checkered azulejos on the faade of the Igreja Matriz de Cambra, Vouzela, Portugal

    In the first half of the 19th century, there was a stagnation in the production of decorative tiles, owing first to the incursion of the Napoleonic army and later to social and economic changes. When around 1840 immigrant Brazilians started an industrialized production in Porto, the Portuguese took over the Brazilian fashion of decorating the faades of their houses with azulejos. While these factories produces high-relief tiles in one or two colours, the Lisbon factories started using another method: the transfer-print method on blue-and-white or polychrome azulejos. In the last decades of the 19th century, the Lisbon factories started to use another type of transfer-printing: using creamware blanks.

    While these industrialized methods produced simple, stylized designs, the art of hand-painting tiles was not dead, as applied by Manuel Joaquim de Jesus and especially Lus Ferreira. Luis Ferreira was the director of the Lisbon factory Viva Lamego and covered the whole faade of this factory with allegorical scenes. He produced panels, known as Ferreira das Tabuletas, with flower vases, trees, and allegorical figures, applying the trompe-l'oeil technique. These hand-painted panels are fine examples of the eclectic Romantic culture of the late 19th century.

    At the start of the 20th century, Art Nouveau azulejos started to appear from artists such as Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, Jlio Csar da Silva and Jos Antnio Jorge Pinto. In 1885 Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro founded a ceramics factory in Caldas da Rainha, where he created many of the pottery designs for which this city is known. In this factory he has his own a museum So Rafael devoted to his fantastically imaginative work, especially the decorative plates and his satirical stone figures, such as the Z Povinho (a representation of the worrying common man).

    Around the 1930s, Art Deco-azulejos made their appearance with their principal artist Antnio Costa. The monumental decorations, consisting of 20,000 azulejos, in the vestibule of the So Bento railway station in Porto, created by Jorge Colao, show in its historical themes the narrative style of the romantic 'picture-postcard'. This one of the most notable creations with azulejos of the 20th century. The faades of the churches of Santo Ildefonso and Congregados equally attest to the artistic mastery of Jorge Colao. Other artists from this period include Mrio Branco and Silvestre Silvestri, who decorated in 1912 the lateral faade of the Carmo Church, and Eduardo Leite for his work on the Almas Chapel (imitating the style of the 18th century), both in Porto.

    20th-century artists include Jorge Barradas, Carlos Botelho, Jorge Martins, S Nogueira, Menez and Paula Rego. Maria Keil designed the large abstract panels in the initial nineteen stations of the Lisbon Underground (between 1957 and 1972). Through these works she became a driving force in the revival and the updating of the art of the azulejo, which had gone in some decline. Her decorations of the station Intendente is considered a masterpiece of contemporary tile art[citation needed]. In 1988 the following contemporary artists were commissioned to decorate the newer subway stations Jlio Pomar (the Alto dos Moinhos station), Maria Helena Vieira da Silva (the Cidade Universitria station), S Nogueira (Laranjeiras station) and Manuel Cargaleiro (the Colgio Militar station).

    The Museu Nacional do Azulejo in Lisbon houses the largest collection of Portuguese tiles in the world.

    Santa Maria Church in Covilh; faade was covered in the 1940s.

    Art Nouveau azulejos on a shop in Porto.

    Capela de Santa Catarina, Porto; faade was covered in 1929.

    Iglesia de San Juan Bautista de Chiva, Valencia.

    21st-century azulejos (Porto)

    In the Philippines, a former Spanish colony, the tradition survives of decorative tiling on staircases, where the tiles are placed on the vertical rise right below each step. It sees a more ubiquitous application in votive diptych tiles depicting the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary, as well as other religious themes. These tiles, which are also coloured brown or polychrome besides the conventional blue, are placed on the wall beside the front door or principal gate of a house, and are encased in a black metal frame surmounted by a cross.

    The tiles can also be seen in Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and several cities of Mexico.

    Due to their prevalence and relative ease of access in historic and often decayed buildings across Portugal, these type of tiles are vulnerable to vandalism, neglect and theft. In Lisbon, the tiles can sometimes be found for sale in street fairs and the black market,[21] despite recent efforts to raise awareness among buyers, that are mainly foreign tourists. Since 2013 that it is forbidden to demolish buildings with tile-covered faades in this city, in an attempt to protect its cultural heritage from deterioration.[22] The highest number of thefts does occur in the capital, and Lisbon authorities estimate that 25% of the total number of artistic tiles existent in that city has been lost between the years 1980 and 2000.[23]

    The main azulejo protection group in Portugal, SOS Azulejo, created in 2007 and that works as a dependency of Polcia Judiciria,[23] has identified the limitation and control of the sale of ancient tiles in those markets as their main goal as of now.[22] The city of Lisbon has also developed 'Banco do Azulejo', that collects and stores around 30 thousand tiles provenient from demolished or intervened buildings, and also from donations to the city, in a project similar to others existent in the cities of Aveiro, Porto and Ovar.[24]

    In August 2017, a new law was put in place in order to prevent both the demolition of tile-covered buildings across the country, and the initiation of renovating operations that could mean the removal of tiles, even if they only affect the building's interior.[25][26]

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    Azulejo - Wikipedia

    Subway tiles that looked like Confederate flags in Times Square covered with stickers – amNY - August 27, 2017 by admin

    Stickers have replaced what was once a series of controversial tile mosaics that looked similar to the Confederate flag in a Times Square subway station.

    The tile work, which bordered the upper part of a wall at the 40th Street-Seventh Avenue entrance to the 1, 2 and 3 trains, originally depicted a mostly blue X bordered by white over a red background.

    The MTA would not confirm it was behind the stickers that now cover the tiles or when they were modified, but PIX 11 reported it was done over the weekend by MTA workers.

    Although the MTA insisted the tile mosaics were not Confederate flags and actually a nod to Times Squares nickname, the Crossroads of the World, the agency said last week that it would change the tiles in order to avoid any future misunderstandings.

    These are not Confederate flags, it is a design based on geometric forms that represent the Crossroads of the World and to avoid absolutely any confusion we will modify them to make that absolutely crystal clear, MTA spokesman Kevin Ortiz said in an emailed statement on Aug. 18.

    The decision to change the tiles was announced just days after violence broke out at the white supremacist rally held in Charlottesville, Virginia, on Aug. 12.

    Backlash over the rally led to the removal of several Confederate memorials in New York City and around the country. Mayor Bill de Blasio also announced a 90-day review of all controversial statues and memorials on city property.

    Read more from the original source:
    Subway tiles that looked like Confederate flags in Times Square covered with stickers - amNY

    Petaluma church group visits Kenya on work trip – Petaluma Argus Courier - August 27, 2017 by admin

    For Petaluma pastor Tom Freitas, the 24-hour flight to Kenya, several-hour van ride to the small village near the Tanzania boarder and week-long stay in a small hut was nothing new. He has made this journey almost annually since 1999.

    What made this trip different was the nature of the work he did on the ground. Freitas, the assistant pastor at Calvary Chapel in Petaluma, and five other members of the congregation spent part of this summer building a church in the village of Kehancha, Kenya, and building friendships among the villagers.

    People there eek out a subsistence living. A lot of people live in one-room huts, Freitas said. The work itself was very labor-intensive. Unlike construction here, it is all manpower.

    The crew of six men from Petalumas Calvary Chapel Freitas, Michael Belfor, Ebin Koenig, Tim Tillman, Art Adams and Ryan Lee were invited by a Kenyan pastor who became affiliated with the church through Freitas ministry work in the east African country. He was looking for volunteers to help reconstruct the village house of worship.

    In Kenya, sometimes a structure doesnt last very long, Freitas said. His church was a mud and stick building. He decided he wanted to build a more permanent structure that wouldnt get degraded over time. Wed never done anything like a construction project before.

    Besides Freitas, the five other men on the trip had never visited Africa before, but they had a life changing experience learning about a new culture, eating different foods and making friends.

    Tillman, a tile contractor, said he had never considered a trip this far from home. But, he said, it was a life changing experience.

    Once we got there, it was pretty amazing, he said. It was a real eye-opener.

    The men spent their days pouring concrete, bending rebar and moving loads of bricks to make the frame for the villages new church. At one point, they ran out of the wood they were using to make frames, and, without any lumber stores, the local men went into the forest to cut down some more wood, Tillman said.

    It was quite different from the way we do things, he said. Made you go back 40, 50 years. It was amazing.

    Tillman said he plans to go back to help lay tile in the church sometime in the future.

    At night, the group hung out with the Kenyan pastor and his family and were hosted at dinner parties.

    The trip in late June coincided with the run up to Kenyas presidential election this month, and Freitas said they saw signs of the campaign throughout the country.

    There was some tension, he said. People get inflamed easily.

    The closely contested poll, won by incumbent president Uhuru Kenyatta, was proceeded by several days of riots, though nothing close to the post-election violence that Kenya experienced after the 2007 presidential election that killed 1,500 people and displaced thousands more.

    Despite Kenyas potential for political violence, Freitas said the country on the whole is stable. He said the potential instability has not kept him from traveling to and working there for nearly 20 years, and he plans to return again next year.

    On the way back to the capital, Nairobi, the group from Petaluma stopped off at one of Kenyas famed wild game parks, the Maasai Mara. There they spotted most of the countrys characteristic animals, including elephants, lions, leopards, buffaloes and rhinos, and were treated to the spectacle of a million wildebeest migrating across the Serengeti plains.

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    Petaluma church group visits Kenya on work trip - Petaluma Argus Courier

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