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    Category: Wiring Installation


    Licensed Electricians New Jersey | Wiring, Generator … - April 17, 2019 by admin

    Welcome to W. Danley Electrical ContractingGENERACS TOP DEALER AWARD WINNER 6 YEARS IN A ROW

    At Danley, each project is a new challenge providing us with the opportunity to craft a solution, solve a problem, and satisfy a customer. We are a full-service company that started in 1921 with offices in Monroe Township, New Jersey. For over 90 years we have been in the industry, offering commercial and residential electrical services including repair, maintenance, and installations. Our growth has been guided by a vision to build an electrical company that consistently provides top-notch electrical engineering services and project management capabilities.

    Certifications and Licenses:

    For almost a century (98 years and counting), Danley has provided dependable, technologically modern electrical installations, contracting services, and generator installation services. Our large group of engineers, electricians, technicians, and designers are united to offer all phases of home, industrial, commercial and institutional electrical contracting.

    We only provide the highest quality services from the beginning to the end. Danley uses only the best line materials and only employs certified staff members. We offer maintenance contracts to fit your schedule, manage all the permits and zoning applications and remain a certified warranty repair company.

    Our employees are well-trained and highly motivated to offer exceptional performance. Careful coordination ensures we are constantly on top of your issue. Whether you want an electrical contractor for residential, industrial, or commercial projects, Danley electrical contractors are your best choice.

    Danley was established as a family business starting in 1921. The firm has been passed down four generations and takes pride in consistently providing top-notch services at unbeatable pricing throughout that time. We look forward to adding you to our long line of satisfied clients. Give us a call today to discuss your project and take part in the Danley experience.

    FREE In-Home Assessment - Call: (732) 432-0164

    with any of our services?

    Contact us Our Experts are ready to help you.

    Our residential and commercial electrical contractors proudly service the areas of:

    New Jersey | Union County | South Jersey | Colts Neck | Marlboro | Morganville | Princeton | Old Bridge

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    Licensed Electricians New Jersey | Wiring, Generator ...

    2016 aftermarket tow hitch / wiring mounting installation … - March 15, 2019 by admin

    I am toying with the idea of buying the factory 7 pin/ 4 pin receptacle that snaps into the bumper and wiring to that. The big problem is... the back side of that is a female connector that receives the round factory connector which is only on the truck equipped with the factory installed tow package. One would have to source the connector on the factory harness. Since this is most likely impossible, the other option is to figure out a way to solder wires into the back side of the oval bumper receptacle and pot the wires. This would give you something to wire to. You could even wire a brake controller if you chose to. Seems like a lot of trouble to go through to tow with a truck. Toyota could have easily left a plug back there and sell the parts to install a nice factory 4 pin.

    Check to see that the Hopkins plug and play is for the 2016 and not the 2015. To my knowledge, no one on this site has successfully wired their 2016 for trailer lights. At least no one has done so without cutting the truck wires. I have not heard of anyone doing this yet. It seems everyone is installing the hitch and waiting on some non destructive wiring options.

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    2016 aftermarket tow hitch / wiring mounting installation ...

    Float Switch Installation Wiring And Control Diagrams | APG - March 15, 2019 by admin

    How do I install and wire my float switch? Where can I find a float switch circuit diagram? Where can I find a float switch wiring diagram? You asked, and today, we answer.

    Wiring a float switch isnt necessarily hard, but it can be a little confusing if you dont have a visual aid or two. Remember that what youre wiring is a means of turning things on and off. Thinking carefully about when you want something off, and when it should turn on, will help you as you visualize the wiring and apply the schematic to real world control.

    Were going to look at a progression of straightforward pump control arrangements using float switches. Well look at single and double switch arrangements and how to wire them, and then look at equivalent circuits using Kari series float switches.

    These instructions and diagrams will serve to teach you the basics of float switch control wiring. They certainly dont apply in all scenarios, especially when additional control equipment is needed to handle large motors. However, with a little bit of fundamentals, youll be wiring like an old pro in no time.

    So there we have it. A two-wire float switch that can easily be used for turning a pump on or off. Mount or suspend your switch at the desired level, get your wires into a water-tight junction box (or out of the liquid containment area and then into a junction box), check the connections back to your control and power equipment, and youre done.

    Its a very simple solution, but its also problematic because level fluctuations will cause the float to flutter, which will turn the pump motor on and off in quick succession. And now your simple solution has burned up a pump motor. So what can we do to protect the pump motor?

    We can add a second switch to create hysteresis. Hyste-what?? Yeah, well get there. Hang on.

    What we need is a way to allow for a level switch to turn on and off without cycling the pump motor at the same time. We could add a time delay, but that doesnt help monitor and respond to the conditions in the tank; it only overrides the switch. However, if we add a second switch that is identical to the first, and wire a seal-in relay around one of them, well get the control were looking for.

    When the liquid is below both switches, they are both closed; the pump runs, filling the tank. As the liquid fills past the first switch, it opens. However, seal-in relay A has been activated and closed, bypassing the now-open switch L (effectively sealing it in), so the pump continues to run until the high-level switch H opens. When the high-level switch opens, the motor relay P opens, stopping the motor, and seal-in relay A opens.

    So no more liquid is coming into the tank from this pump. Lets say a valve downstream of the tank is opened, allowing liquid to drain out of the tank. As the liquid level falls, high-level switch H closes. But since both low-level switch L and seal-in relay A are open, the pump motor does not start.

    In fact, the liquid level in the tank must fall below low-level switch L before the motor will start. At that point, both the low-level and high-level switches will be closed, completing the circuit, and activating motor relay P to start the pump. At the same time, seal-in relay A will be activated, closing the by-pass around low-level switch L. So when low-level switch L opens as the pump fills the tank, the seal-in relay keeps the circuit closed, and the pump keeps pumping.

    This cyclical action is called hysteresis. Once the liquid level falls below the low-level switch, the pump will run until both switches are open. The liquid level can fluctuate up and down, the low-level switch can open and close, and the pump will continue to run smoothly. Similarly, once the high-level switch opens, the pump will not run until both switches have closed. Regardless of level fluctuations, no more pump motor flutter.

    Great! Weve got level control, reasonable pump-motor life, everything we could want, right? Lets wire it up. We need to wire both float switches back to our control circuitry, plus we have to add the contacts and seal-in relay A. The low-level switch wires to terminals 1 and 2, the high-level switch to terminals 3 and 4, and the contacts for seal-in relay A to terminals 5 and 6.

    So thats at least four, if not six, wires that need to be hooked up to the control circuitry. (Wiring for the seal-in relay and contacts will depend on your control equipment.) Thats not so bad: two float switches, an additional relay, and four to six wires. But what if I tell you that you can do it with just two wires? Not two additional wires, just two wires.

    Thats right. With a KARI series 2L float switch, you get the same hysteresis control using one switch and two wires instead of two switched and four or six wires. What is this Magic, you ask? Simple: each KARI series float switch has multiple microswitches and control circuitry built into the float.

    As the single KARI series float rises with the liquid level in the tank, it tilts to one side. The microswitches inside the float activate at factory-set angles as the float tilts, and the preprogrammed control circuitry responds accordingly.

    So what do you need to wire this up? We can go back to control schematic 1: just two wires between the switch and the motor control circuit, (+) wire to terminal 1 and (-) to terminal 2. No seal-in relays, no extra switches, nothing else. Two wires, and youre done.

    Take a look at the Control Schematic 4. On the bottom line you have the wiring terminals for the switches providing hysteresis (wires 1 & 2). The next line up is for a high-high-level alarm (i.e., a higher level than the high-level hysteresis switch). As with the seal-in relay above, the wiring necessary for the alarm contact will vary based on your control equipment. All that is left is installing the switch per the manufacturers instructions for your desired levels.

    Weve spent quite a bit of time talking about how float switches can be used to turn pumps on and off, so its worth taking a moment to talk specifically about motor starting and motor control. For small motors DC motors, motors up to 1 HP the relay-driven contactors shown in the diagrams above are probably sufficient for starting the motor. No harm will come to these motors (or the loads they are driving) from starting and stopping via a contactor acting as an on-off switch.

    For larger motors, inrush current (up to six or eight times full load current) becomes an important factor in the starting and maintenance of the motor, rendering contactors insufficient as stand-alone motor starters. Such motors need integrated controllers and overload protection in order to start safely and still be protected while running at full load. Fortunately, most motors of this size will either be controlled via a motor control center (MCC) or a dedicated control panel, both of which are fully capable of integrating control circuits and instruments like those shown above.

    In all reality, most of the pumps and motors you would control with a float switch are probably large enough to require these integrated controls. While the setup is more complicated than the wiring schematics provided above, the wiring is often simplified for the end user because the system provider has done most of the work.

    However, understanding the basics of float switch control wiring will help you work confidently no matter how powerful or complex the system. Everything from float switch installation to troubleshooting will become easier. And, of course, were always available to help out if you feel the need.

    Rugged float switches don't grow on trees. You have to get them from APG! Check them out by clicking below:

    top photo credit: PEO ACWA via flickr cc cropped

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    Float Switch Installation Wiring And Control Diagrams | APG

    Tracy Electric, Inc – Electric Systems Repair, Appliance … - December 20, 2018 by admin

    Electrical Contractor & Electricians Wichita | Electric Systems Repair, Appliance, Home Theater & Outdoor Lighting Installation | Business Lighting, Data Cabling, Swimming Pool Electrical, Commercial & Residential Wiring - Tracy Electric Inc.

    Tracy Electric Inc. is a full service electrical contractor providing commercial, residential and industrial emergency repair and installation services to the Wichita, KS and surrounding areas. We are also licensed to do industrial work in over 20 States. We offer superior customer service and deliver the highest level of workmanship on every job we complete regardless of size or location.

    We operate with great efficiency on every project to minimize your downtime and get your business up and running at 100% as quickly as possible. We perform all kinds of work for commercial businesses including, lighting, repairs, circuit installations, upgrades, data/voice systems, power distribution and more.

    Homeowners and apartment managers rely on us to perform installation and repair services for both new and existing electrical systems and components of every kind. If you need 24/7 emergency repairs, additional power for add-on construction or service upgrades, we are here to provide all your residential electrical needs at competitive rates.

    From plant automation to design-build and installation of mechanical systems we are experts at all forms of electrical work for industrial facilities.

    8025 South Broadway Haysville, KS 67060

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    Tracy Electric, Inc - Electric Systems Repair, Appliance ...

    Thermostat Wiring Colors Code | HVAC Control Wire Details - December 20, 2018 by admin

    Tstat Terminal DesignationColor of Wire and Termination R The R terminal is the power. This comes from the transformer usually located in the air handler for split systems but you may find the transformer in the condensing unit. For this reason, it is a good idea to kill the power at the condenser and the air handler before changing or working on the wiring at the tstat. If you have a package unit then the transformer is in the package unit.Red for the R terminal. *Although be aware that this may have changed especially if the person who wired the thermostat didnt use conventional color coding. RC The RC terminal is designated for the power for cooling. Some HVAC systems use two transformers. A transformer for cooling and a transformer for heating. In this case, the power from the transformer in the air conditioning system would go to the thermostat terminal. It should be noted that a jumper can be installed between RC and RH for a heating and cooling system equipped with a single transformer.Red for RC terminal. *Although be aware that this may have changed especially if the person who wired the thermostatdidntuse conventional color coding. RH The RH terminal is designated for the power for heating. See RC above for an explanation. It should be noted that a jumper can be installed between RC and RH. This is only forheating and cooling systems equipped with a single transformer.Red for RH terminal. *Although be aware that this may have changed especially if the person who wired the thermostatdidntuse conventional color coding. Y This is the terminal for cooling or air conditioning and goes to the compressor relay. Typically a thermostat wire pull is made to the air handler on split systems. This wire is then spliced for the separate wire pull which is made to the condenser. Some manufacturers put a terminal board strip near the control board in the air handler. Therefore, a splice is not needed.Yellow for Y Terminal. *Although be aware that this may have changed especially if the person who wired the thermostatdidntuse conventional color coding. Y2 This is the terminal for cooling second stage if your system is so equipped. Many systems only have a single compressor but if you have two compressors (or a two stage compressor) which should only operate off of one thermostat then you need the Y2 thermostat terminal for second stage cooling.*The most common colorIveseen used for this terminal and wire designation is light blue but this varies and is completely up to the installer what color to use.For the thermostat wiring colors code for this terminal (if equipped) consult with the installer. If that is not possible then trace the wire out to the source. W This is the terminal for heating. This wire should go directly to the heating source whether it be a gas or oil furnace, electric furnace, or boiler or auxiliary heating for a heat pump.White for W Terminal. *Although be aware that this may have changed especially if the person who wired the thermostatdidntuse conventional color coding. W2 This is the terminal used for second stage heat. There are gas furnaces with low fire and high fire and some depend on control from a two-stage heating thermostat with a W2 terminal. Heat Pumps use staging for auxiliary heat and need a W2 terminal.*The most common color Ive seen used for this terminal and wire designation is brown but this varies and is completely up to the installer what color to use. For the thermostat wiring colors code for this terminal (if equipped) consult with the installer or trace the wire out to the source. G This is the terminal used for the fan relay to energize the indoor blower fan. On a split system the blower fan is in the air handler. A package unit the blower fan is in the outdoor package unit.Green for G Terminal. *Although be aware that this may have changed especially if the person who wired the thermostatdidntuse conventional color coding. C This is the terminal which originates from the transformer and is necessary to complete the 24 volts power circuit in the thermostat but only if the thermostat consumes electricity for power. Many digital thermostats require 24 volts for power so the common wire is necessary.C stands for common and there is no universal color used for this terminal although black is the most common color Ive seen. For the thermostat wiring colors code for this terminal (if equipped) consult with the installer. If that is not possible then trace the wire out to the source. O or B These terminals are for heat pumps and the B tstat terminal is used on for Rheem or Ruud and any manufacturer that energizes the reversing valve in heating mode for the heat pump. Other manufacturers of heat pumps utilize the reversing valve for cooling. The O thermostat terminal will be utilized for this purpose. This wire goes to outside heat pump condenser where the reversing valve is located.Orange for O and Dark Blue for B depending on the installer of the heat pump and the manufacturer. If you have a Trane, Carrier, Goodman, Lennox, Ducane, Heil, Fedders, Amana, Janitrol, or any other manufacturer other than Rheem or Ruud you will be utilizing the orange wire for reversing valve. Rheem and Ruud will usually utilize the blue wire for reversing valve. E This terminal is for heat pumps and stands for Emergency Heating. If for whatever reason the heat pump condenser fails and it is necessary to run the heat there is an option on heat pump thermostats for emergency heating. Basically, this simply utilizes the back-up heat source many heat pumps have to heat the home without sending a signal to the condenser to run for heat.E There is no universal color used for this terminal designation but this should be wired directly to the heating relay or the E terminal on a terminal strip board in the air handler or package unit if you have a heat pump package unit. X or Aux This terminal is for back-up on a heat pump and allows for auxiliary heating from the back-up heat source usually located in the air handler.X or Aux There is no universal color used for this terminal designation but this should be wired directly to the heating relay or the Aux terminal on a terminal strip board in the air handler or package unit if you have a heat pump package unit. S1 & S2 or (Outdoor 1 and Outdoor 2) Some tstats have this terminal. It used for an outdoor temperature sensor. Special shielded wire is used for this run and completely separate form the other thermostat wires. Some manufacturers will show this the T terminals on their thermostat.Using shielded wire prevents electromagnetic forces generated from other wires from interfering with the signal inside the shielded wire. A remote temperature sensor is a solid state device. The signal needed to get an accurate temperature is sensitive to electromagnetic forces from other wiring inside the structure. This type of wire is different from the typical thermostat wire and a separate wire altogether.

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    Thermostat Wiring Colors Code | HVAC Control Wire Details

    Wiring Diagram – Everything You Need to Know About Wiring … - November 8, 2018 by admin

    What is a Wiring Diagram?

    A wiring diagram is a simple visual representation of the physical connections and physical layout of an electrical system or circuit. It shows how the electrical wires are interconnected and can also show where fixtures and components may be connected to the system.

    Use wiring diagrams to assist in building or manufacturing the circuit or electronic device. They are also useful for making repairs.

    DIY enthusiasts use wiring diagrams but they are also common in home building and auto repair.

    For example, a home builder will want to confirm the physical location of electrical outlets and light fixtures using a wiring diagram to avoid costly mistakes and building code violations.

    SmartDraw comes with pre-made wiring diagram templates. Customize hundreds of electrical symbols and quickly drop them into your wiring diagram. Special control handles around each symbol allow you to quickly resize or rotate them as necessary.

    To draw a wire, simply click on the Draw Lines option on the left hand side of the drawing area. If you right click on a line, you can change the line's color or thickness and add or remove arrowheads as necessary. Drag a symbol onto the line and it will insert itself and snap into place. Once connected, it will remain connected even if you move the wire.

    If you need additional symbols, click the arrow next to the visible library to bring up a drop down menu and select More. You'll be able to search for additional symbols and open any relevant libraries.

    Click on Set Line Hops in the SmartPanel to show or hide line hops at crossover points. You can also change the size and shape of your line hops. Select Show Dimensions to show the length of your wires or size of your component.

    Click here to read SmartDraw's complete tutorial on how to draw circuit diagrams and other electrical diagrams.

    A schematic shows the plan and function for an electrical circuit, but is not concerned with the physical layout of the wires. Wiring diagrams show how the wires are connected and where they should located in the actual device, as well as the physical connections between all the components.

    Unlike a pictorial diagram, a wiring diagram uses abstract or simplified shapes and lines to show components. Pictorial diagrams are often photos with labels or highly-detailed drawings of the physical components.

    If a line touching another line has a black dot, it means the lines are connected. When unconnected lines are shown crossing, you'll see a line hop.

    Most symbols used on a wiring diagram look like abstract versions of the real objects they represent. For example, a switch will be a break in the line with a line at an angle to the wire, much like a light switch you can flip on and off. A resistor will be represented with a series of squiggles symbolizing the restriction of current flow. An antenna is a straight line with three small lines branching off at its end, much like a real antenna.

    The best way to understand wiring diagrams is to look at some examples of wiring diagrams.

    Click on any of these wiring diagrams included in SmartDraw and edit them:

    Browse SmartDraw's entire collection of wiring diagram examples and templates

    Link:
    Wiring Diagram - Everything You Need to Know About Wiring ...

    Wiring recommendations – Electrical Installation Guide - October 12, 2018 by admin

    Signal classes

    (see Fig. R39)

    Fig. R39:Internal signals can be grouped in four classes

    Four classes of internal signals are:

    Relay contacts.

    Fig. R40:Wiring recommendations for cables carrying different types of signals

    (see Fig. R40 and Fig. R41)

    In general, a 10 cm separation between cables laid flat on sheet metal is sufficient (for both common and differential modes). If there is enough space, a distance of 30 cm is preferable. If cables must be crossed, this should be done at right angles to avoid cross-talk (even if they touch). There are no distance requirements if the cables are separated by a metal partition that is equipotential with respect to the ECPs. However, the height of the partition must be greater than the diameter of the cables.

    Fig. R41:Use of cables and ribbon cable

    (see Fig. R42)

    If it is necessary to use a cable to carry the signals of different groups, internal shielding is necessary to limit cross-talk (differential mode). The shielding, preferably braided, must be bonded at each end for groups 1, 2 and 3.

    Fig. R42:Incompatible signals = different cables

    (see Fig. R43)

    The overshielding acts as a HF protection (common and differential modes) if it is bonded at each end using a circumferential connector, a collar or a clampere However, a simple bonding wire is not sufficient.

    Fig. R43:Shielding and overshielding for disturbing and/or sensitive cables

    (see Fig. R44)

    Except where necessary for groups 1 and 2 (differential mode). If a single connector is used for both analogue and digital signals, the two groups must be separated by at least one set of contacts connected to 0 V used as a barrier.

    Fig. R44:Segregation applies to connectors as well!

    (see Fig. R45)

    For group 4, these connections are not advised for lines with very low voltage and frequency levels (risk of creating signal noise, by magnetic induction, at the transmission frequencies).

    Fig. R45:Free wires must be equipotentially bonded

    (see Fig. R46)

    This is particularly important for low-level sensors. Even for relay signals with a common, the active conductors should be accompanied by at least one common conductor per bundle. For analogue and digital signals, twisted pairs are a minimum requirement. A twisted pair (differential mode) guarantees that the two wires remain together along their entire length.

    Fig. R46:The two wires of a pair must always be run close together

    But they should be made of twisted pairs to ensure compliance with the previous section.

    (see Fig. R47)

    For example: Covers, metal trunking, structure, etc. In order to take advantage of the dependable, inexpensive and significant reduction effect (common mode) and anti-cross-talk effect (differential mode).

    Fig. R47:Run wires along their entire length against the bonded metal parts

    (see Fig. R48)

    Fig. R48:Cable distribution in cable trays

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    Wiring recommendations - Electrical Installation Guide

    Aircraft Wiring & Electrical Installation: Avotek … - September 24, 2018 by admin

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    Electrical wiring – Wikipedia - July 9, 2018 by admin

    Electrical wiring is an electrical installation of cabling and associated devices such as switches, distribution boards, sockets and light fittings in a structure.

    Wiring is subject to safety standards for design and installation. Allowable wire and cable types and sizes are specified according to the circuit operating voltage and electric current capability, with further restrictions on the environmental conditions, such as ambient temperature range, moisture levels, and exposure to sunlight and chemicals.

    Associated circuit protection, control and distribution devices within a building's wiring system are subject to voltage, current and functional specification. Wiring safety codes vary by locality, country or region. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is attempting to harmonise wiring standards amongst member countries, but significant variations in design and installation requirements still exist.

    Wiring installation codes and regulations are intended to protect people and property from electrical shock and fire hazards. They are usually based on a model code (with or without local amendments) produced by a national or international standards organisation, such as the IEC.

    In Australia and New Zealand, the AS/NZS 3000 standard, commonly known as the "wiring rules", specifies requirements for the selection and installation of electrical equipment, and the design and testing of such installations. The standard is mandatory in both New Zealand and Australia; therefore, all electrical work covered by the standard must comply.

    In European countries, an attempt has been made to harmonise national wiring standards in an IEC standard, IEC 60364 Electrical Installations for Buildings. Hence national standards follow an identical system of sections and chapters. However, this standard is not written in such language that it can readily be adopted as a national wiring code. Neither is it designed for field use by electrical tradesmen and inspectors for testing compliance with national wiring standards. By contrast, national codes, such as the NEC or CSA C22.1, generally exemplify the common objectives of IEC 60364, but provide specific rules in a form that allows for guidance of those installing and inspecting electrical systems.

    In Germany, DKE (the German Commission for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies of DIN and VDE) is the organisation responsible for the promulgation of electrical standards and safety specifications. DIN VDE 0100 is the German wiring regulations document harmonised with IEC 60364.

    The first electrical codes in the United States originated in New York in 1881 to regulate installations of electric lighting. Since 1897 the US National Fire Protection Association, a private non-profit association formed by insurance companies, has published the National Electrical Code (NEC). States, counties or cities often include the NEC in their local building codes by reference along with local differences. The NEC is modified every three years. It is a consensus code considering suggestions from interested parties. The proposals are studied by committees of engineers, tradesmen, manufacturer representatives, fire fighters and other invitees.

    Since 1927, the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) has produced the Canadian Safety Standard for Electrical Installations, which is the basis for provincial electrical codes. The CSA also produces the Canadian Electrical Code, the 2006 edition of which references IEC 60364 (Electrical Installations for Buildings) and states that the code addresses the fundamental principles of electrical protection in Section 131. The Canadian code reprints Chapter 13 of IEC 60364, but there are no numerical criteria listed in that chapter to assess the adequacy of any electrical installation.

    Although the US and Canadian national standards deal with the same physical phenomena and broadly similar objectives, they differ occasionally in technical detail. As part of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) program, US and Canadian standards are slowly converging toward each other, in a process known as harmonisation.

    In the United Kingdom, wiring installations are regulated by the Institution of Engineering and Technology Requirements for Electrical Installations: IEE Wiring Regulations, BS 7671: 2008, which are harmonised with IEC 60364. The 17th edition (issued in January 2008) includes new sections for microgeneration and solar photovoltaic systems. The first edition was published in 1882.

    In a typical electrical code, some colour-coding of wires is mandatory. Many local rules and exceptions exist per country, state or region.[1] Older installations vary in colour codes, and colours may fade with insulation exposure to heat, light and ageing.

    As of March 2011, the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) requires the use of green/yellow colour cables as protective conductors, blue as neutral conductors and brown as single-phase conductors.[2]

    The United States National Electrical Code requires a bare copper, or green or green/yellow insulated protective conductor, a white or grey neutral, with any other color used for single phase. The NEC also requires the "high leg" conductor of a High-leg delta or "bastard-leg" system to have orange insulation.

    The introduction of the NEC clearly states that it is not intended to be a design manual, and therefore, creating a color code for ungrounded or "hot" conductors falls outside the scope and purpose of the NEC. However, it is a common misconception that "hot" conductor color-coding is required by the Code.

    In the United States, color-coding of three-phase system conductors follows a de facto standard, wherein black, red, and blue are used for three-phase 120/208-volt systems, and brown, orange, and yellow are used in 277/480-volt systems. In buildings with multiple voltage systems, the grounded conductors (neutrals) of both systems are required to be identified and made distinguishable to avoid cross-system connections. Most often, 120/208-volt systems use white insulation, while 277/480-volt systems use gray insulation, although this particular color code is not currently an explicit requirement of the NEC.[3]

    The United Kingdom requires the use of wire covered with green/yellow striped insulation, for safety earthing (grounding) connections.[4] This growing international standard was adopted for its distinctive appearance, to reduce the likelihood of dangerous confusion of safety earthing (grounding) wires with other electrical functions, especially by persons affected by red-green colour blindness.

    In the UK, phases could be identified as being live by using coloured indicator lights: red, yellow and blue. The new cable colours of brown, black and grey do not lend themselves to coloured indicators. For this reason, three-phase control panels will often use indicator lights of the old colours.[5]

    Materials for wiring interior electrical systems in buildings vary depending on:

    Wiring systems in a single family home or duplex, for example, are simple, with relatively low power requirements, infrequent changes to the building structure and layout, usually with dry, moderate temperature and non-corrosive environmental conditions. In a light commercial environment, more frequent wiring changes can be expected, large apparatus may be installed and special conditions of heat or moisture may apply. Heavy industries have more demanding wiring requirements, such as very large currents and higher voltages, frequent changes of equipment layout, corrosive, or wet or explosive atmospheres. In facilities that handle flammable gases or liquids, special rules may govern the installation and wiring of electrical equipment in hazardous areas.

    Wires and cables are rated by the circuit voltage, temperature rating and environmental conditions (moisture, sunlight, oil, chemicals) in which they can be used. A wire or cable has a voltage (to neutral) rating and a maximum conductor surface temperature rating. The amount of current a cable or wire can safely carry depends on the installation conditions.

    The international standard wire sizes are given in the IEC 60228 standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission. In North America, the American Wire Gauge standard for wire sizes is used.

    Modern non-metallic sheathed cables, such as (US and Canadian) Types NMB and NMC, consist of two to four wires covered with thermoplastic insulation, plus a bare wire for grounding (bonding), surrounded by a flexible plastic jacket. Some versions wrap the individual conductors in paper before the plastic jacket is applied.

    Special versions of non-metallic sheathed cables, such as US Type UF, are designed for direct underground burial (often with separate mechanical protection) or exterior use where exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a possibility. These cables differ in having a moisture-resistant construction, lacking paper or other absorbent fillers, and being formulated for UV resistance.

    Rubber-like synthetic polymer insulation is used in industrial cables and power cables installed underground because of its superior moisture resistance.

    Insulated cables are rated by their allowable operating voltage and their maximum operating temperature at the conductor surface. A cable may carry multiple usage ratings for applications, for example, one rating for dry installations and another when exposed to moisture or oil.

    Generally, single conductor building wire in small sizes is solid wire, since the wiring is not required to be very flexible. Building wire conductors larger than 10 AWG (or about 6mm) are stranded for flexibility during installation, but are not sufficiently pliable to use as appliance cord.

    Cables for industrial, commercial and apartment buildings may contain many insulated conductors in an overall jacket, with helical tape steel or aluminium armour, or steel wire armour, and perhaps as well an overall PVC or lead jacket for protection from moisture and physical damage. Cables intended for very flexible service or in marine applications may be protected by woven bronze wires. Power or communications cables (e.g., computer networking) that are routed in or through air-handling spaces (plenums) of office buildings are required under the model building code to be either encased in metal conduit, or rated for low flame and smoke production.

    For some industrial uses in steel mills and similar hot environments, no organic material gives satisfactory service. Cables insulated with compressed mica flakes are sometimes used. Another form of high-temperature cable is a mineral insulated cable, with individual conductors placed within a copper tube and the space filled with magnesium oxide powder. The whole assembly is drawn down to smaller sizes, thereby compressing the powder. Such cables have a certified fire resistance rating and are more costly than non-fire rated cable. They have little flexibility and behave more like rigid conduit rather than flexible cables.

    The environment of the installed wires determine how much current a cable is permitted to carry. Because multiple conductors bundled in a cable cannot dissipate heat as easily as single insulated conductors, those circuits are always rated at a lower "ampacity". Tables in electrical safety codes give the maximum allowable current based on size of conductor, voltage potential, insulation type and thickness, and the temperature rating of the cable itself. The allowable current will also be different for wet or dry locations, for hot (attic) or cool (underground) locations. In a run of cable through several areas, the part with the lowest rating becomes the rating of the overall run.

    Cables usually are secured with special fittings where they enter electrical apparatus; this may be a simple screw clamp for jacketed cables in a dry location, or a polymer-gasketed cable connector that mechanically engages the armour of an armoured cable and provides a water-resistant connection. Special cable fittings may be applied to prevent explosive gases from flowing in the interior of jacketed cables, where the cable passes through areas where flammable gases are present. To prevent loosening of the connections of individual conductors of a cable, cables must be supported near their entrance to devices and at regular intervals along their runs. In tall buildings, special designs are required to support the conductors of vertical runs of cable. Generally, only one cable per fitting is permitted, unless the fitting is rated or listed for multiple cables.

    Special cable constructions and termination techniques are required for cables installed in ships. Such assemblies are subjected to environmental and mechanical extremes. Therefore, in addition to electrical and fire safety concerns, such cables may also be required to be pressure-resistant where they penetrate a vessel's bulkheads. They must also resist corrosion caused by salt water or salt spray, which is accomplished through the use of thicker, specially constructed jackets, and by tinning the individual wire stands.

    In North American practice, an overhead cable from a transformer on a power pole to a residential electrical service usually consists of three twisted (triplexed) conductors, with one being a bare neutral conductor, with the other two being the insulated conductors for both of the two 180 degree out of phase 120 V line voltages normally supplied.[8] The neutral conductor is often a supporting "messenger" steel wire, which is used to support the insulated Line conductors.

    Electrical devices often contain copper conductors because of their multiple beneficial properties, including their high electrical conductivity, tensile strength, ductility, creep resistance, corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, solderability, resistance to electrical overloads, compatibility with electrical insulators and ease of installation.

    Despite competition from other materials, copper remains the preferred electrical conductor in nearly all categories of electrical wiring.[9][10] For example, copper is used to conduct electricity in high, medium and low voltage power networks, including power generation, power transmission, power distribution, telecommunications, electronics circuitry, data processing, instrumentation, appliances, entertainment systems, motors, transformers, heavy industrial machinery and countless other types of electrical equipment.[11]

    Aluminium wire was common in North American residential wiring from the late 1960s to mid-1970s due to the rising cost of copper. Because of its greater resistivity, aluminium wiring requires larger conductors than copper. For instance, instead of 14 AWG (American wire gauge) copper wire, aluminium wiring would need to be 12 AWG on a typical 15 ampere lighting circuit, though local building codes vary.

    Solid aluminum conductors were originally made in the 1960s from a utility grade aluminum alloy that had undesirable properties for a building wire, and were used with wiring devices intended for copper conductors.[12][13] These practices were found to cause defective connections and potential fire hazards. In the early-1970s new aluminum wire made from one of several special alloys was introduced, and all devices breakers, switches, receptacles, splice connectors, wire nuts, etc. were specially designed for the purpose. These newer aluminum wires and special designs address problems with junctions between dissimilar metals, oxidation on metal surfaces and mechanical effects that occur as different metals expand at different rates with increases in temperature.[citation needed]

    Unlike copper, aluminium has a tendency to creep or cold-flow under pressure, so older plain steel screw clamped connections could become loose over time. Newer electrical devices designed for aluminum conductors have features intended to compensate for this effect. Unlike copper, aluminium forms an insulating oxide layer on the surface. This is sometimes addressed by coating aluminium conductors with an antioxidant paste (containing zinc dust in a low-residue polybutene base[14]) at joints, or by applying a mechanical termination designed to break through the oxide layer during installation.

    Some terminations on wiring devices designed only for copper wire would overheat under heavy current load and cause fires when used with aluminum conductors. Revised standards for wire materials and wiring devices (such as the CO/ALR "copper-aluminium-revised" designation) were developed to reduce these problems. While larger sizes are still used to feed power to electrical panels and large devices, aluminium wiring for residential use has acquired a poor reputation and has fallen out of favour.

    Aluminium conductors are still heavily used for bulk power distribution and large feeder circuits with heavy current loads, due to the various advantages they offer over copper wiring. Aluminium conductors both cost and weigh less than copper conductors, so a much larger cross sectional area can be used for the same weight and price. This can compensate for the higher resistance and lower mechanical strength of aluminum, meaning the larger cross sectional area is needed to achieve comparable current capacity and other features. Aluminium conductors must be installed with compatible connectors and special care must be taken to ensure the contact surface does not oxidise.

    Insulated wires may be run in one of several forms between electrical devices. This may be a specialised bendable pipe, called a conduit, or one of several varieties of metal (rigid steel or aluminium) or non-metallic (PVC or HDPE) tubing. Rectangular cross-section metal or PVC wire troughs (North America) or trunking (UK) may be used if many circuits are required. Wires run underground may be run in plastic tubing encased in concrete, but metal elbows may be used in severe pulls. Wiring in exposed areas, for example factory floors, may be run in cable trays or rectangular raceways having lids.

    Where wiring, or raceways that hold the wiring, must traverse fire-resistance rated walls and floors, the openings are required by local building codes to be firestopped. In cases where safety-critical wiring must be kept operational during an accidental fire, fireproofing must be applied to maintain circuit integrity in a manner to comply with a product's certification listing. The nature and thickness of any passive fire protection materials used in conjunction with wiring and raceways has a quantifiable impact upon the ampacity derating, because the thermal insulation properties needed for fire resistance also inhibit air cooling of power conductors.

    Cable trays are used in industrial areas where many insulated cables are run together. Individual cables can exit the tray at any point, simplifying the wiring installation and reducing the labour cost for installing new cables. Power cables may have fittings in the tray to maintain clearance between the conductors, but small control wiring is often installed without any intentional spacing between cables.

    Local electrical regulations may restrict or place special requirements on mixing of voltage levels within one cable tray. Good design practices may segregate, for example, low level measurement or signal cables from trays carrying high power branch circuits, to prevent induction of noise into sensitive circuits.

    Since wires run in conduits or underground cannot dissipate heat as easily as in open air, and since adjacent circuits contribute induced currents, wiring regulations give rules to establish the current capacity (ampacity).

    Special sealed fittings are used for wiring routed through potentially explosive atmospheres.

    For very high currents in electrical apparatus, and for high currents distributed through a building, bus bars can be used. (The term "bus" is a contraction of the Latin omnibus meaning "for all".) Each live conductor of such a system is a rigid piece of copper or aluminium, usually in flat bars (but sometimes as tubing or other shapes). Open bus bars are never used in publicly accessible areas, although they are used in manufacturing plants and power company switch yards to gain the benefit of air cooling. A variation is to use heavy cables, especially where it is desirable to transpose or "roll" phases.

    In industrial applications, conductor bars are often pre-assembled with insulators in grounded enclosures. This assembly, known as bus duct or busway, can be used for connections to large switchgear or for bringing the main power feed into a building. A form of bus duct known as "plug-in bus" is used to distribute power down the length of a building; it is constructed to allow tap-off switches or motor controllers to be installed at designated places along the bus. The big advantage of this scheme is the ability to remove or add a branch circuit without removing voltage from the whole duct.

    Bus ducts may have all phase conductors in the same enclosure (non-isolated bus), or may have each conductor separated by a grounded barrier from the adjacent phases (segregated bus). For conducting large currents between devices, a cable bus is used.[further explanation needed]

    For very large currents in generating stations or substations, where it is difficult to provide circuit protection, an isolated-phase bus is used. Each phase of the circuit is run in a separate grounded metal enclosure. The only fault possible is a phase-to-ground fault, since the enclosures are separated. This type of bus can be rated up to 50,000 amperes and up to hundreds of kilovolts (during normal service, not just for faults), but is not used for building wiring in the conventional sense.

    Electrical panels are easily accessible junction boxes used to reroute and switch electrical services. The term is often used to refer to circuit breaker panels or fuseboxes. Local codes can specify physical clearance around the panels.

    Rasberry crazy ants have been known to consume the insides of electrical wiring installations, preferring DC over AC currents. This behaviour is not well understood by scientists.[15]

    Squirrels, rats and other rodents may gnaw on unprotected wiring, causing fire and shock hazards.[16][17] This is especially true of PVC-insulated telephone and computer network cables. Several techniques have been developed to deter these pests, including insulation loaded with pepper dust.

    The first interior power wiring systems used conductors that were bare or covered with cloth, which were secured by staples to the framing of the building or on running boards. Where conductors went through walls, they were protected with cloth tape. Splices were done similarly to telegraph connections, and soldered for security. Underground conductors were insulated with wrappings of cloth tape soaked in pitch, and laid in wooden troughs which were then buried. Such wiring systems were unsatisfactory because of the danger of electrocution and fire, plus the high labour cost for such installations.The first Electrical codes arose in the 1880s with the commercial introduction of electrical power, however, many conflicting standards existed for the selection of wire sizes and other design rules for electrical installations, and a need was seen to introduce uniformity on the grounds of safety.

    The earliest standardised method of wiring in buildings, in common use in North America from about 1880 to the 1930s, was knob and tube (K&T) wiring: single conductors were run through cavities between the structural members in walls and ceilings, with ceramic tubes forming protective channels through joists and ceramic knobs attached to the structural members to provide air between the wire and the lumber and to support the wires. Since air was free to circulate over the wires, smaller conductors could be used than required in cables. By arranging wires on opposite sides of building structural members, some protection was afforded against short-circuits that can be caused by driving a nail into both conductors simultaneously.

    By the 1940s, the labour cost of installing two conductors rather than one cable resulted in a decline in new knob-and-tube installations. However, the US code still allows new K&T wiring installations in special situations (some rural and industrial applications).

    In the United Kingdom, an early form of insulated cable,[18] introduced in 1896, consisted of two impregnated-paper-insulated conductors in an overall lead sheath. Joints were soldered, and special fittings were used for lamp holders and switches. These cables were similar to underground telegraph and telephone cables of the time. Paper-insulated cables proved unsuitable for interior wiring installations because very careful workmanship was required on the lead sheaths to ensure moisture did not affect the insulation.

    A system later invented in the UK in 1908 employed vulcanised-rubber insulated wire enclosed in a strip metal sheath. The metal sheath was bonded to each metal wiring device to ensure earthing continuity.

    A system developed in Germany called "Kuhlo wire" used one, two, or three rubber-insulated wires in a brass or lead-coated iron sheet tube, with a crimped seam. The enclosure could also be used as a return conductor. Kuhlo wire could be run exposed on surfaces and painted, or embedded in plaster. Special outlet and junction boxes were made for lamps and switches, made either of porcelain or sheet steel. The crimped seam was not considered as watertight as the Stannos wire used in England, which had a soldered sheath.[19]

    A somewhat similar system called "concentric wiring" was introduced in the United States around 1905. In this system, an insulated electrical wire was wrapped with copper tape which was then soldered, forming the grounded (return) conductor of the wiring system. The bare metal sheath, at earth potential, was considered safe to touch. While companies such as General Electric manufactured fittings for the system and a few buildings were wired with it, it was never adopted into the US National Electrical Code. Drawbacks of the system were that special fittings were required, and that any defect in the connection of the sheath would result in the sheath becoming energised.[20]

    Armoured cables with two rubber-insulated conductors in a flexible metal sheath were used as early as 1906, and were considered at the time a better method than open knob-and-tube wiring, although much more expensive.

    The first rubber-insulated cables for USA building wiring were introduced in 1922 with US patent 1458803, Burley, Harry & Rooney, Henry, "Insulated electric wire", issued 1923-06-12, assigned to Boston Insulated Wire And Cable.[citation needed] These were two or more solid copper electrical wires with rubber insulation, plus woven cotton cloth over each conductor for protection of the insulation, with an overall woven jacket, usually impregnated with tar as a protection from moisture. Waxed paper was used as a filler and separator.

    Over time, rubber-insulated cables become brittle because of exposure to atmospheric oxygen, so they must be handled with care and are usually replaced during renovations. When switches, socket outlets or light fixtures are replaced, the mere act of tightening connections may cause hardened insulation to flake off the conductors. Rubber insulation further inside the cable often is in better condition than the insulation exposed at connections, due to reduced exposure to oxygen.

    The sulphur in vulcanised rubber insulation attacked bare copper wire so the conductors were tinned to prevent this. The conductors reverted to being bare when rubber ceased to be used.

    About 1950, PVC insulation and jackets were introduced, especially for residential wiring. About the same time, single conductors with a thinner PVC insulation and a thin nylon jacket (e.g. US Type THN, THHN, etc.) became common.[citation needed]

    The simplest form of cable has two insulated conductors twisted together to form a unit. Such un-jacketed cables with two (or more) conductors are used only for extra low voltage signal and control applications such as doorbell wiring.

    Other methods of securing wiring that are now obsolete include:

    Metal moulding systems, with a flattened oval section consisting of a base strip and a snap-on cap channel, were more costly than open wiring or wooden moulding, but could be easily run on wall surfaces. Similar surface mounted raceway wiring systems are still available today.

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    Electrical wiring - Wikipedia

    Wire Installation: Cable Pulling, Fish Tape, Aerial Tools … - October 17, 2017 by admin

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    When you're installing a cabling run, especially one that needs to move through some pretty tight spaces (such as under raised flooring and through ceilings, walls, or crawl spaces), you need more than just your bare hands. And thankfully, there are a number of products available to help you through the process of feeding and pulling cables through those hard-to-reach places.

    Pulling stands and trailers can help you get your spools of cable to the jobsite. Cable pulling tools can help move your cable along conduit, and fish tape and rods can guide and retrieve your wires.

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    Wire installation can be tricky business, but luckily there are plenty of tools to help make your job easier. Whether you are working on a personal project at home or you are on the job installing wires for an industrial setting, its essential to make sure the job gets done right! Some cable jobs can be easy, but others are complicated and require bending and turning wires within flooring and walls and roofs. This kind of maneuvering is close to impossible without the right tools, not to mention downright frustrating and time-consuming. Here, we outline some of CableOrganizer.coms best tools for wire installation.

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