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    Category: Water Heater Install


    Best Tankless Water Heater (REVIEWS WITH COMPARISON) - July 1, 2018 by admin

    Are you in search for the best tankless water heater? Heating water for various functions has currently become a basic need for each and every home. To serve this purpose individuals are now using water heaters which vary across different models and prices. One of the most widely used and best water heaters are tankless water heaters. Theyre high power water heaters that heat water instantly in a very efficient manner. They dont retain water internally. The heater is supplied with flow sensors that activate it once water travels through them. The water circulates through a device and is warmed by gas or electricity. Theyre coated with sturdy coatings to shield them from acidic environments.

    Stiebel Eltron Tempra 24 Plus Electric Tankless Water Heater

    Dimensions - 21.5 x 19.5 x 8.8 inches

    Voltage - 208-240V

    Digital temperature control

    Rinnai RL75iN Natural Gas Tankless Water Heater

    Dimensions - 14 x 9.3 x 23 inches

    BTU-10,300 - 180,000

    Thermal Efficiency-82%

    Takagi T-KJr2-IN-LP Indoor Tankless Water Heater

    Dimensions - 28 x 17 x 10.5 inches

    BTU- 140,000

    6.6 GPM max flow rate

    Ecosmart ECO 36 36kw 240V Electric Tankless Water Heater

    Dimensions - 17 x 19 x 3.8 inches

    Voltage - 240V

    Self Modulating Technology & digital temperature control

    Rheem RTG-64DVLN Prestige Tankless Natural Gas Water Heater

    Dimensions - 14 x 10 x 26 inches

    Natural Gas

    Direct Vent Indoor

    In comparison with typical water heaters, the tankless heaters guarantee vital energy value savings. The tankless water heaters run at a slow rate thats by moving 2 to 5 gallons per minute.The advantages of some of the bestrated Bosch tankless water heaters are that they operate only when theres a requirement for warm water that helps in reducing energy prices. Theyre very much reliable additionally. If the unit is sized properly, they effortlessly deliver never-ending supply of water at predetermined temperature levels. These storage tank scores high in safety. Their safety is as a result of the actual fact that they solely operate once the hot water is needed.Heating water for various functions has currently become a basic need for each and every home.

    Specifications are: Voltage: 240 Wattage: 24 Amperage: 250 Min. required circuit breaker size: double pole 260 Recommended wire size: 2 x 6 Maximum temp. increase: 92 Weight: 15.4 Width: 16 5/8 Height: 14 1/2 Depth: 4 5/8 Working pressure: 150 PSI.

    This water heater can be easily compared with thetop quality Noritz electric tankless water heater. The features are built with advanced technology for providing better service to the users. It has digital temperature control system which helps in keeping a check on the temperature of the water being used in a simple way.The fundamental advantage is that for this kind of heaters, no venting is required which gives users a sigh of relief. The sleek designhelps in solving space problem so it can be kept anywhere in a proper place. Thiswhole house tankless water heaterconsumes very less power, so it saves our money at this part which is very much beneficial. The primary consideration for the buyer is to have an electrical service installed for it. Also, it can work at any range of temperature and provides unlimited hot water.

    This Rinnai tankless water heater is 58.4 pounds in weight and has dimensions of 14 x 9.3 x 23 inches. This set is ideal for two to three bathroom homes and can be the best tankless gas water heater available. It delivers up to 7.5 gallons of hot water per minute (GPM) and helps in saving energy and money.

    It is ideal for two- to three-bathroom homes which is a beneficial feature and could be used as the commercial tankless water heater. The R75LSi delivers up to 7.5 gallons of hot water per minute (GPM) while saving energy and money. It requires special Rinnai vent.It comes standard with MC-91-1 US digital controller with error code indicator. Its thermal efficiency is 82% which is an advantageous feature of this product. Temperature variations are an important characteristic- Residential Temperature Settings: 98F 140F and Commercial Temperature Settings: 98F 160F.This model turns out to be the top model that has got advantageous features supported by superior technology. It offers great versatility in every field that is either residential or commercial. With a sleep and contemporary design that easily fits into the available space. You may read Rinnai tankless water heater reviewsin detail on this site.

    The capacity of this propane tankless water heater is for 1 to 2 bathrooms, and the flow rate is maximum with 6.6 GPM. Gas Inputs are 19,500 to 140,000 BTU per hour. Energy Factor Rating are 0.83. Inlet Gas Pressure Min: 8.0 W.C. / Max 14.0 W.C. Its dimensions are 20.3 H x 13.8 W x 6.7 D. It provides direct vent capability. It provides an electric ignition facility. Takagi heaters can give tough competition to the top heaters likebest quality Navien tankless water heaters.

    This is the smallest water heater in the Takagi tankless line. This product is 38 pounds with product dimensions 28 x 17 x 10.5 inches. This is a powerful unit with gas inputs up to 140,000 BTU per hour can meet all the hot-water needs of a small home or apartment with one or two bathrooms.This product is cost efficient and is environmentally friendly. This Takagi tankless water heatercan be converted into a direct-vent unit by using the optional TV10 conversion kit for installation in a confined space.The unit has four preset temperatures on the unit are: 113F, 122F, 131F, 140F. To achieve any temperatures other than those presets, we require the TK-RE02 temperature controller. So its temperature settings are very much versatile.

    The ideal weight of the product is 17.4 pounds with product dimensions 17*19*3.8 inches with 240 volts technology and even no battery is required. This brand also provides a lifetime warranty for residential use.

    This product is equipped with latest and advanced patented self-modulating technology. It is the largest electrical tankless water heater available. The beneficial feature is that the incoming water temperatures can reach as low as 37 degrees F.A digital temperature control allows us to set temperature in increments of 1 degree so that we can set the temperature to how we like it. The ECO 36 is the most powerful model from the full line of tankless water heaters, with the capacity to handle a large single-family home.It saves up to 50% on our water heating costs with most advanced feasters. It is unto 90% smaller so space availability is not a problem. The feature is that the product is eco-friendly so it is safer to use.

    This product is designed for continuous hot water. Its specifications 6.8 gal./min. at 35A-Degree F rise max. 5.3 gal./min. at 45A-Degree F rise max. Best features: New. 3-Inch/5-Inch Concentric Vent System with Integrated Condensate Collector.

    It is 82% energy efficient with stainless steel condensing heat exchanger. It is equipped with intelligent electronic controls designed to increase energy efficiency and safety. The basic thing is that it is mostly used in industries.Hot start programming helps minimize fluctuation in water temperature, referred to as cold water sandwich, during periods of frequent on/off operation. So this top class Rheem tankless water heater provides reliability to the users by providing different temperature controls.It has a built-in electric blower. It is environmentally friendly with the ultra low NOx burner. Also, freeze protection is provided up to -30F. Installation is quite easy with the use of the Rheem service kit which has a port for pressure valve. The good thing is that the beginner can easily get the heater mounted by serving simplified manual.

    A Piezo push-button ignition operates the 330 PN LP Therm Tankless Water Heater by Bosch. A constant temperature at varying flow rates of water is maintained as the product has a modulating gas valve. It has a flow rate of 3.3 gallons per minute at 35F degree rise and has a thermal efficiency of more than 78%. The tankless system can be wall-mounted, is easy to install and does not require any batteries.

    The Bosch 330 PN is an ideal choice for small homes considering the following key features of the product:

    PROS:

    CONS:

    The Eccotemp 45HI-LP Horizontal Bundle is a tankless water heater that can be wall mounted and is compact and easy to fit in small spaces; though it is termed as the largest indoor model of Eccotemp tankless line. The 45HI-LP can fulfill the hot water requirements of a regular household with up to two bathrooms as it has a 6.8 GPM and 140,000 BTU per hour. It also can cater to small commercial units as it has a fully automated control system. Powered by liquid propane, the device is split system adaptable that can further enhance its efficiency and increase the speed of hot water delivery.

    The following key features make it a perfect choice for standard homes:

    PROS:

    CONS:

    The Navien NPE240S-NG runs on a field convertible gas system and is powered by natural gas. The application has extra condensing efficiency and is strengthened by dual stainless steel heat exchangers. It has low NOx emissions which are equal to or less than 20 ppm. The unit can be wall hung and comes with an installation kit that includes a wall bracket and the connecting fittings to connect it to your plumbing. The temperature range is from 98 140 degrees Fahrenheit and the flow rate is 11.1 gallons per minute. The product can quickly meet the hot water requirements of a standard household.

    The following key features help understand how the product will fit in with the needs of your household:

    PROS:

    CONS:

    The Rheem RTG-84XLN is a tankless water heater that is powered by natural gas. This model is for residential use only and ensures you do not run out of hot water. It is based on the new next generation burner technology and requires outdoor installation. It is easy to install in comparison to an indoor tankless heater and requires less space as no additional venting is necessary. The product efficiently caters to the requirements of a two bathroom household and is an energy efficient application that provides a continuous supply of hot water.

    The following key features make it an ideal solution for you to heat your water at home:

    PROS:

    CONS:

    Capable of catering to the hot water requirements of two bathrooms in colder climates the Takagi T-H3S-DV-N with gas inputs of 180,000 BTU is an ideal choice for standard homes. In warmer climates, it can even provide for the hot water needs of homes with three bathrooms. The tankless water heater runs on natural gas is designed for indoor use only and has computerized safety features. It has a temperature range of 100 140 degrees_celsius and a flow rate of 8 gallons per minute. The product is compact and can be installed in smaller spaces leading to space saving. It is easy to install and provides for on demand usage.

    The product is equipped with the following features that make it an ideal choice for regularly using in homes to meet its hot water needs:

    PROS:

    CONS:

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    Tankless water heaters are now used at every place such as homes or business because of the increasing demand for this product. Due to the availability of a variety of products in the market different factors are required while choosing the best tankless water heater. So one should have in-depth knowledge about some of the best tankless water heater brands available in the market.

    There are an endless number of brands to choose from and each is slightly different from the other inaddition to the cost of the tankless water heater of different kinds and sorts. Some help in providing environment-friendly technology while others put their main focus on efficiency and power. So we should find a right brand matching our need.

    Some of the points to be considered before buying a tankless water heater are-

    Hot water usage has become much more convenient and energy efficient because of increasing need of people. Best tankless hot water heaters deliver more consistent temperatures by using less energy. Tankless heaters provide hot water all at once, and no preheating is required so they are very time-saving.

    Benefits of Going Tankless-

    With todays rising costs of energy and environmental awareness in mind, different brands in the market has met and exceeded the expectations of home and business owners for new water heating solutions. These products have gained great success by combining new technology and functionality in an innovative way to heat water. So finally they enhance our lifestyle, utilize technology and provide hot water at low costs. As these devices use energy to heat water so the basic fact about a good tankless water heater is no wastage of energy.

    Read More

    1. How It Works: Tankless Water Heaters

    2. Read more about tankless water heaters on Wikipedia.

    Read the original post:
    Best Tankless Water Heater (REVIEWS WITH COMPARISON)

    Costs To Install A Hot Water Heater In 2018 - June 24, 2018 by admin

    Currently, the average hot water heater cost is $800-2,500, including installation. If the last time you replaced a water heater was 10 years or more, and its starting to give you trouble, it may be time to get a new device.

    Lets take a look at the installation costs for different water heater types, as well as factors that impact the total price.

    How much does a water heater cost?

    Water Heater Repair

    $250 - $350

    40 Ga. Water Heater

    $850 - $1100

    Tankless Water Heater

    $1200 - $3500

    See costs in your areaStart Here - Enter Your Zip Code

    Homeowners across the US are paying $850-2,500 to install a new water heater (including device and labor). Such a wide price ranges depends on the following:

    type of heater (tank vs. tankless) size/capacity (40, 50, 75 gallons) power type (gas, electric, solar).

    The installation cost itself may also vary greatly, depending on the complexity of the job.

    In some cases, homeowners end up paying $1,000-3,000 for the install, on top of the cost of the heater itself. You can expect higher than average installation charges if you want to switch from a storage tank to an on demand heater.

    There are four general types of water heaters: tank-style, tankless, hybrid and solar.

    Tank and tankless are the most popular, so we will focus on them.

    Tank (storage) style: this is the most common and budget friendly hot water heater. It continuously heats and stores a specific amount of water (40, 50, 75, 100 gallons), in an insulated tank. The stored water is delivered via pipes, when its needed. Lower-end models can cost as little as $300, but on average they run $650-850, by brands like Westinghouse. High- end tank heaters can cost over $1000, by brands like A.O.Smith.

    Tankless (on demand): these water heaters DONT store water. Instead, they use special heating coils to heat water when you need it. These devices can cost significantly more than tank models of the same size (although high-end water heaters cost about the same). Prices start at around $800 for a gas heater from brands like Rheem, and can go up as high as $1,500+ for premium brands like Noritz.

    Electric tankless water heaters cost $160-500, with EcoSmart, being a very popular, highly rated brand.

    If you have been researching various water heater options, you way be wondering if its worth it to pay more for a tankless model. Perhaps a traditional hot water heater would be just as good?

    Well, here is some advice from the pros to help you choose the best product for your household needs.

    Why a tankless water heater may be the right choice:

    A typical on-demand unit is more expensive than a storage one, because it offers a number of significant advantages:

    Why a storage tank heater may be the right choice:

    With tank-style models, the size of the water heater has a direct impact on the price. The bigger the tank, the higher the price. The difference between 40 vs 50 gallons is about $150-250, depending on the manufacturer. However the difference between 50 vs. 75 gallons can be as high $400-600. Tanks that hold 100 gallons are very expensive. They often cost double or even triple the price of a 50 gallon tank of the same brand.

    How much does a water heater cost?

    Water Heater Repair

    $250 - $350

    40 Ga. Water Heater

    $850 - $1100

    Tankless Water Heater

    $1200 - $3500

    See costs in your areaStart Here - Enter Your Zip Code

    How to choose a water heater (video):

    How to quickly determine the right size water heater for your house

    It all boils down to how much hot water you use. Some people like 30-minute showers and long baths, while others are in and out in 5 minutes, and never/rarely take a bath.

    I was going to get us a 40 gallon tank, because I take 3-5 minute showers. But my plumber convinced me to go with 50 gallons, and he was absolutely right! My kids take baths (we have a large jacuzzi tub), and when they do, hot water disappears!

    With tankless models, efficiency is determined by the maximum temperature rise possible at a given flow rate, known as GPM. Average size tankless heaters have a GPM rating between 5-6. More powerful devices can go as high as 11-12 GPM. Roughly, every additional GPM costs about $100 extra, depending on the manufacturer.

    Keep in mind that gas tankless water heaters produce a larger temperature rise per GPM than electric models. This means that if your household water usage is very high and frequent, you are better off paying more for a tankless gas model.

    Note, whether you go for a storage or tankless device, its important to get the RIGHT size, based on a real calculation of your households water usage. This may mean spending more money upfront, but its well worth it!

    If you get a heater that is too small, your family will be very uncomfortable for the next 10-12 years in all daily tasks, from taking showers to doing laundry.

    Electric heaters cost significantly less than gas ones. Among tankless models, the majority cost between $200-350. A device that costs between$700-800 is considered the very top of the line, from brands like Stiebel. By comparison, the $700 dollar range is a fairly low average for a tankless gas water heater. The vast majority of gas devices cost between $1,200-1,800.

    When it comes to storage water heaters the difference in price between electric vs gas-powered models is less pronounced. The range for most electric devices is $300-600, and you can find many gas heaters in the same price range. Still, gas tank style heaters are more expensive overall, with many costing well over $1,500.

    When you browse different devices, you will quickly notice that some water heater brands cost at least double the price of others, when all else is equal.

    However, high-end brands are often more expensive for the following reasons:

    they have better quality internal parts that last longer overall better design offer longer, more comprehensive warranties

    Surely, you will also be paying a premium for the prestige of certain brands.

    It may not be worth it to splurge thousands of dollars on a heater by A.O Smith or Westinghouse, but it is also safer to steer clear of budget brands. While you will save a few hundred dollars upfront, in the long run, you will spend more on repairing or replacing a device that stopped working way before the expected end of life.

    Your best bet is to go for good quality brands such as Rheem, Tagaki, this is where the BEST VALUE is.

    There are a number of things that will effect how much a plumber charges for labor on a particular install:

    1. Type of heater: if you are installing a regular gas storage tank, the job is fairly straightforward. This is especially true if you are simply replacing a heater that you had before with a new model. Consequently, you should expect to pay no more than $300-450 for this work.

    Installation of a tankless gas heater starts at around $1,200 because the process is more involved and time-consuming.

    If you have a storage unit and want to switch to a tankless one, you should be prepared to spend a lot more. This is because, in most homes the existing gas piping, meter and gas line to the meter, may not be able to handle the high gas load of a tankless device.

    Consequently, there will be a lot of complex labor involved in the switch, such as:

    retrofitting the existing gas line perhaps putting in a new line installing a proper venting system possibly having additional electrical wiring done (you will need to hire an electrician) maybe re-routing gas and water lines, and possibly electricity, depending on the layout of your basement and ventilation.

    Moreover, you may not be able to vent the gas tankless heater into the chimney and may need to do a direct vent outside. Homeowners looking to make this switch should budget $1,500-3,5000 for labor.

    Similarly, if you are switching to an electric tankless device, an electrician will need to do a lot of work to rewire and expand your homes existing system to handle the extra power usage from the heater (which is VERY high). Some of the most powerful electric tankless models can use as much as 120 amps. So if you have a 100 amp service, you cant use an electric tankless water without upgrading the electric panel to at least 200 amps. This will cost an extra $1,000-1,500 on average, but can be as much as $3,000 depending on the complexity of labor involved, such as having to open walls, etc.

    2. Your location: while this may not seem fair to you as a homeowner, the reality is that contractors rates vary depending on where you live. In high-income suburban areas, as well as expensive cities such as San Francisco, New York, Boston, Miami, a plumber will charge as much as 15-25% more for labor, compared to areas where incomes are significantly lower.

    3. Unreasonable pricing scams: because most homeowners have no idea about plumbing and what this work entails, many plumbers take the liberty of charging EXTREMELY high prices for NO REASON. For example, many companies may offer to buy the hot water heater for you (they will help you select one), and then will roll their labor fees into the total cost. As a result, many people end up paying as much as the cost of the heater itself, for an easy, straight forward installation! For example, if your heater costs $700, your total charge will be $1,400, or more.

    To avoid these types of companies, it is important to get estimates from 3-4 local professionals, and ask them exactly what type of work they will be performing. It is also a good idea to conduct your own research online, ask your neighbors, etc, to see how much people in your area are paying for this home improvement project. If a contractor sees that you have done your research, he will most likely give you a fair price.

    We strongly recommend paying for professional installation, as opposed to going DIY, because dealing with gas and electricity can be very dangerous!

    How much does a water heater cost?

    Water Heater Repair

    $250 - $350

    40 Ga. Water Heater

    $850 - $1100

    Tankless Water Heater

    $1200 - $3500

    See costs in your areaStart Here - Enter Your Zip Code

    Read more from the original source:
    Costs To Install A Hot Water Heater In 2018

    2018 Water Heater Installation Costs | Price to Replace a … - June 24, 2018 by admin

    On This Page:

    Hot water is an essential part of modern life, a necessity rather than a luxury. So choosing and installing a water heater is a very important decision in the life of your home. Whether you are replacing an old water heater or installing a brand new system, you may be concerned about the price. There are a number of factors that play a part in the cost of installing a new hot water heater.

    Average cost with installation:

    Water heaters come in two different styles: tank and tankless. Both heat your water, but they do it in different ways. A tank style water heater stores a given amount of water, usually 40 to 50 gallons, and keeps it heated to the temperature you set it at, sending it along when you open the hot water tap. A tankless system doesnt store the water and heats it only when you need it by means of a series of super-heated coils. Each kind has its good points and bad points:

    Tank

    Pros

    Cons

    Tankless

    Pros

    Cons

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    Water heaters are either gas-fired or electrically-fired. The difference between the two is how the water is heated, via natural gas or electrical resistance coils. Gas water heaters are less energy-efficient than electric water heaters, but the cost of electricity can still make gas the less expensive choice. Here are some other points of comparison between the two:

    Electric

    Gas

    Energy Source

    Whatever your city uses

    Natural gas

    Works During Power Outage

    No

    Yes

    Lifespan

    About 12 years

    Recovery Rate

    About 14 gallons per hour

    About 50 gallons per hour

    Energy Efficiency

    90%

    60% - 70%

    Cost Over 12 Year Lifespan

    $6248.00

    $4979.00

    Price of Unit

    $300.00 to $2,880.00

    $250.00 to $1,500.00

    For a large family of 5 or more people, a gas water heater will be the most suitable. The fast recovery time will ensure that you have enough hot water for your needs in as short a time as possible. Even the on-demand tankless water heaters cant keep up with the high demands of a large family and will slow the water to a trickle the higher the demand gets.

    Small families and studio apartments can often use an electric or tankless water heater (if the apartments are on individual units). With a tankless system, the relatively low demand on the water heater allows you to take full advantage of the energy efficiency without taxing the unit.

    Solar Water Heaters

    Some people supplement their hot water system with a solar water heater. While these can help increase the hot water available for your family, they are also very expensive. They can cost over $1,000.00 at their base price, and the amount of savings varies widely according to your use.

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    To determine what size water heater you need, keep in mind that bigger isnt always better. A conventional water heater is running all the time, so it will waste money to heat water that youre never going to use. Fortunately, calculating what size to get is easy, requiring only simple, grade-school level math.

    First you need to figure out your FHR (First Hour Rating). This is the amount of water youll use during your homes peak time of water usage. This is usually first thing in the morning when everyone is taking showers, brushing their teeth, filling the coffee pot, etc. To do this, count the number of people in your household (or, if the house is currently unoccupied, count the number of bedrooms) and add 1. A four-bedroom house, for example, would come out to 5. Multiply that number by 12, the estimated gallons of hot water each person will use. For this example, the total is 60. (4+1=5, 5x12=60).

    Now that you know your homes FHR, youll want to get a water heater with the highest energy factor (EF) that you can afford. All of this information should be on a yellow label on the water heater.

    The average water heater for a family of 5+ is around 50 gallons. The average FHR for these units ranges from 67 on the low end to 81 on the high end.

    Return to Top

    To begin with, lets revisit grade-school science: hot water expands.

    Water is not compressible, which means that as it heats up, it will not press in on itself. It will look for somewhere to go. Check valves keep the expanding water from flowing back into the municipal water supply. This helps your municipality protect the city water supply from contaminants.

    So where does that water go as it expands? Most water heaters have a little room inside for expansion. However, even though water doesnt normally expand by much, any system can fail. In this case, the expanding water flows into the expansion tank. The expansion tank is usually more than adequate to handle the anticipated pressure from your tank.

    Do you need one? Yes. Without a safe place for the expanded water to go, you can experience a total failure of your water heating system. This is a fancy way of saying that your water heater and/or pipes can burst. Many codes today require an expansion tank be installed with new construction. For a retro-fitting, most expansion tanks cost between $40.00 and $70.00. Someone who is handy with tools can install their own. If you have any doubts, though, call a plumber. This project involves gas and/or electrical lines.

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    Do you need a new water heater? Here are some easy ways to find out. Some may require a little periodic checking while others become obvious only after things have gone wrong:

    When it comes time to replace your water heater, its best to call a professional. This way you can be sure that everything has been done safely and to code.

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    The most popular brands of water heaters are popular for a reason. They are reliable, affordable, and readily available. Some brands, such as AO Smith, are sold exclusively by plumbing wholesalers and contractors. Others are available at your local hardware or home improvement stores.

    The costs above are estimates for the water heater only. They are for the common 40- to 50-gallon capacity units and do not include installation, transportation, or other additional costs.

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    A water heater is a must in your home. As technology advances, the efficiency of these systems will increase, making hot water even more affordable than before. Though some systems can be installed DIY, its best to call a professional to be sure the job is done right.

    Return to Top

    Read more here:
    2018 Water Heater Installation Costs | Price to Replace a ...

    Water Heater Installation from Lowe’s - June 24, 2018 by admin

    Trust Lowe's With Your Water Heater Installation

    From gas water heaters to electric water heaters, tankless water heaters and more, we'll help you find the best product for your needs and ensure it's installed to your satisfaction.

    Forget the Worry. You're Covered.

    POPULAR WATER HEATER CATEGORIES

    WATER HEATER BUYING GUIDES & RESOURCES

    Lowes Can Help With Your Water Heater Installation

    Need help with a water heater installation? You dont have to know how to install a water heater or how to install a tankless water heater yourself. Lowes independent installers have you covered for tankless water heater installations and any other hot water heater installations your property may require. Why learn how to install a hot water heater yourself? Tankless water heater installation costs may be less than you think. You have better things to do than installing a water heater or managing water heater installation costs. Quit wondering how to install a water heater and contact Lowes today.

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    Water Heater Installation from Lowe's

    Water heating – Wikipedia - June 24, 2018 by admin

    "Hot water" redirects here. For other uses, see Hot Water.

    Water heating is a heat transfer process that uses an energy source to heat water above its initial temperature. Typical domestic uses of hot water include cooking, cleaning, bathing, and space heating. In industry, hot water and water heated to steam have many uses.

    Domestically, water is traditionally heated in vessels known as water heaters, kettles, cauldrons, pots, or coppers. These metal vessels that heat a batch of water do not produce a continual supply of heated water at a preset temperature. Rarely, hot water occurs naturally, usually from natural hot springs. The temperature varies with the consumption rate, becoming cooler as flow increases.

    Appliances that provide a continual supply of hot water are called water heaters, hot water heaters, hot water tanks, boilers, heat exchangers, geysers, or calorifiers. These names depend on region, and whether they heat potable or non-potable water, are in domestic or industrial use, and their energy source. In domestic installations, potable water heated for uses other than space heating is also called domestic hot water (DHW).

    Fossil fuels (natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, oil), or solid fuels are commonly used for heating water. These may be consumed directly or may produce electricity that, in turn, heats water. Electricity to heat water may also come from any other electrical source, such as nuclear power or renewable energy. Alternative energy such as solar energy, heat pumps, hot water heat recycling, and geothermal heating can also heat water, often in combination with backup systems powered by fossil fuels or electricity.

    Densely populated urban areas of some countries provide district heating of hot water. This is especially the case in Scandinavia, Finland and Poland. District heating systems supply energy for water heating and space heating from combined heat and power (CHP) plants, waste heat from industries, incinerators, geothermal heating, and central solar heating. Actual heating of tap water is performed in heat exchangers at the consumers' premises. Generally the consumer has no in-building backup system, due to the expected high availability of district heating systems.

    Hot water used for space heating may be heated by fossil fuels in a boiler, while potable water may be heated in a separate appliance. This is common practice in the US, especially when warm-air space heating is usually employed.[1]

    In household and commercial usage, most North American and Southern Asian water heaters are the tank type, also called storage water heaters, these consist of a cylindrical vessel or container that keeps water continuously hot and ready to use. Typical sizes for household use range from 75 to 400 liters (20 to 100 US gallons). These may use electricity, natural gas, propane, heating oil, solar, or other energy sources. Natural gas heaters are most popular in the US and most European countries, since the gas is often conveniently piped throughout cities and towns and currently is the cheapest to use. In the United States, typical natural gas water heaters for households without unusual needs are 40 or 50 US gallons with a burner rated at 34,000 to 40,000 BTU/hour. Some models offer "High Efficiency and Ultra Low NOx" emissions.

    This is a popular arrangement where higher flow rates are required for limited periods, water is heated in a pressure vessel that can withstand a hydrostatic pressure close to that of the incoming mains supply. In North America, these vessels are called hot water tanks, and may incorporate an electrical resistance heater, a heat pump, or a gas or oil burner that heats water directly.

    Where hot-water space heating boilers are installed, domestic hot water cylinders are usually heated indirectly by primary water from the boiler, or by an electric immersion heater (often as backup to the boiler). In the UK these vessels are called indirect cylinders, or direct cylinders, respectively. Additionally, if these cylinders form part of a sealed system, providing mains-pressure hot water, they are known as unvented cylinders. In the US, when connected to a boiler they are called indirect-fired water heaters.

    Compared to tankless heaters, storage water heaters have the advantage of using energy (gas or electricity) at a relatively slow rate, storing the heat for later use. The disadvantage is that over time, heat escapes through the tank wall and the water cools down, activating the heating system to heat the water back up, so investing in a tank with better insulation improves this standby efficiency.[2] Additionally, when heavy use exhausts the hot water, there is a significant delay before hot water is available again. Larger tanks tend to provide hot water with less temperature fluctuation at moderate flow rates.

    Volume storage water heaters in the United States and New Zealand are typically vertical, cylindrical tanks, usually standing on the floor or on a platform raised a short distance above the floor. Volume storage water heaters in Spain are typically horizontal. In India, they are mainly vertical. In apartments they can be mounted in the ceiling space over laundry-utility rooms. In Australia, gas and electric outdoor tank heaters have mainly been used (with high temperatures to increase effective capacity), but solar roof tanks are becoming fashionable.

    Tiny point-of-use (POU) electric storage water heaters with capacities ranging from 8 to 32 liters (2 to 6 gallons) are made for installation in kitchen and bath cabinets or on the wall above a sink. They typically use low power heating elements, about 1kW to 1.5kW, and can provide hot water long enough for hand washing, or, if plumbed into an existing hot water line, until hot water arrives from a remote high capacity water heater. They may be used when retrofitting a building with hot water plumbing is too costly or impractical. Since they maintain water temperature thermostatically, they can only supply a continuous flow of hot water at extremely low flow rates, unlike high-capacity tankless heaters.

    In tropical countries, like Singapore and India, a storage water heater may vary from 10L to 35L. Smaller water heaters are sufficient, as ambient weather temperatures and incoming water temperature are moderate.

    A locational design decision may be made between point-of-use and centralized water heaters. Centralized water heaters are more traditional, and are still a good choice for small buildings. For larger buildings with intermittent or occasional hot water use, multiple POU water heaters may be a better choice, since they can reduce long waits for hot water to arrive from a remote heater. The decision where to locate the water heater(s) is only partially independent of the decision of a tanked vs. tankless water heater, or the choice of energy source for the heat.

    Tankless water heatersalso called instantaneous, continuous flow, inline, flash, on-demand, or instant-on water heatersare gaining in popularity.[citation needed] These high-power water heaters instantly heat water as it flows through the device, and do not retain any water internally except for what is in the heat exchanger coil. Copper heat exchangers are preferred in these units because of their high thermal conductivity and ease of fabrication.

    Tankless heaters may be installed throughout a household at more than one point-of-use (POU), far from a central water heater, or larger centralized models may still be used to provide all the hot water requirements for an entire house. The main advantages of tankless water heaters are a plentiful continuous flow of hot water (as compared to a limited flow of continuously heated hot water from conventional tank water heaters), and potential energy savings under some conditions. The main disadvantage is their much higher initial costs, a US study in Minnesota study reported a 20- to 40-year payback for the tankless water heaters.[3] In a comparison to a less efficient natural gas fired hot water tank, on-demand natural gas will cost 30% more over its useful life.[4]

    Stand-alone appliances for quickly heating water for domestic usage are known in North America as tankless or on demand water heaters. In some places, they are called multipoint heaters, geysers or ascots. In Australia and New Zealand they are called instantaneous hot water units. In Argentina they are called calefones. In that country calefones use gas instead of electricity. A similar wood-fired appliance was known as the chip heater.

    A common arrangement where hot-water space heating is employed, is for a boiler to also heat potable water, providing a continuous supply of hot water without extra equipment. Appliances that can supply both space-heating and domestic hot water are called combination (or combi) boilers. Though on-demand heaters provide a continuous supply of domestic hot water, the rate at which they can produce it is limited by the thermodynamics of heating water from the available fuel supplies.

    An electric shower head has an electric heating element which heats water as it passes through. These self-heating shower heads are specialized point-of-use (POU) tankless water heaters, and are widely used in some countries.

    Invented in Brazil in the 1930s and used frequently since the 1940s, the electric shower is a home appliance often seen in South American countries due to the higher costs of gas distribution. Earlier models were made of chromed copper or brass, which were expensive, but since 1970, units made of injected plastics are popular due to low prices similar to that of a hair dryer. Electric showers have a simple electric system, working like a coffee maker, but with a larger water flow. A flow switch turns on the device when water flows through it. Once the water is stopped, the device turns off automatically. An ordinary electric shower often has three heat settings: high (5.5kW), low (2.5kW), or cold (0W) to use when a central heater system is available or in hot seasons.

    The power consumption of electric showers in the maximum heating setting is about 5.5kW for 120V and 7.5kW for 220V. The lower costs with electric showers compared to the higher costs with boilers is due to the time of use: an electric shower uses energy only while the water flows, while a boiler works many times a day to keep a quantity of standing water hot for use throughout the day and night. Moreover, the transfer of electric energy to the water in an electric shower head is very efficient, approaching 100%. Electric showers may save energy compared to electric tank heaters, which lose some standby heat.

    There is a wide range of electric showers, with various types of heating controls. The heating element of an electric shower is immersed in the water stream, using a nichrome resistance element which is sheathed and electrically isolated, like the ones used in oil heaters, radiators or clothes irons, providing safety. Due to electrical safety standards, modern electric showers are made of plastic instead of using metallic casings like in the past. As an electrical appliance that uses more electric current than a washer or a dryer, an electric shower installation requires careful planning, and generally is intended to be wired directly from the electrical distribution box with a dedicated circuit breaker and ground system. A poorly installed system with old aluminum wires or bad connections may be dangerous, as the wires can overheat or electric current may leak via the water stream through the body of the user to earth.[5]

    Increasingly, solar powered water heaters are being used. Their solar collectors are installed outside dwellings, typically on the roof or walls or nearby, and the potable hot water storage tank is typically a pre-existing or new conventional water heater, or a water heater specifically designed for solar thermal.

    The most basic solar thermal models are the direct-gain type, in which the potable water is directly sent into the collector. Many such systems are said to use integrated collector storage (ICS), as direct-gain systems typically have storage integrated within the collector. Heating water directly is inherently more efficient than heating it indirectly via heat exchangers, but such systems offer very limited freeze protection (if any), can easily heat water to temperatures unsafe for domestic use, and ICS systems suffer from severe heat loss on cold nights and cold, cloudy days.

    By contrast, indirect or closed-loop systems do not allow potable water through the panels, but rather pump a heat transfer fluid (either water or a water/antifreeze mix) through the panels. After collecting heat in the panels, the heat transfer fluid flows through a heat exchanger, transferring its heat to the potable hot water. When the panels are cooler than the storage tank or when the storage tank has already reached its maximum temperature, the controller in closed-loop systems stops the circulation pumps. In a drainback system, the water drains into a storage tank contained in conditioned or semi-conditioned space, protected from freezing temperatures. With antifreeze systems, however, the pump must be run if the panel temperature gets too hot (to prevent degradation of the antifreeze) or too cold (to prevent the water/antifreeze mixture from freezing.)

    Flat panel collectors are typically used in closed-loop systems. Flat panels, which often resemble skylights, are the most durable type of collector, and they also have the best performance for systems designed for temperatures within 56C (100F) of ambient temperature. Flat panels are regularly used in both pure water and antifreeze systems.

    Another type of solar collector is the evacuated tube collector, which are intended for cold climates that do not experience severe hail and/or applications where high temperatures are needed (i.e., over 94C [201F]). Placed in a rack, evacuated tube collectors form a row of glass tubes, each containing absorption fins attached to a central heat-conducting rod (copper or condensation-driven). The evacuated description refers to the vacuum created in the glass tubes during the manufacturing process, which results in very low heat loss and lets evacuated tube systems achieve extreme temperatures, far in excess of water's boiling point.

    In countries like Iceland and New Zealand, and other volcanic regions, water heating may be done using geothermal heating, rather than combustion.

    Where a space-heating water boiler is employed, the traditional arrangement in the UK is to use boiler-heated (primary) water to heat potable (secondary) water contained in a cylindrical vessel (usually made of copper)which is supplied from a cold water storage vessel or container, usually in the roof space of the building. This produces a fairly steady supply of DHW (Domestic Hot Water) at low static pressure head but usually with a good flow. In most other parts of the world, water heating appliances do not use a cold water storage vessel or container, but heat water at pressures close to that of the incoming mains water supply.

    Other improvements to water heaters include check valve devices at their inlet and outlet, cycle timers, electronic ignition in the case of fuel-using models, sealed air intake systems in the case of fuel-using models, and pipe insulation. The sealed air-intake system types are sometimes called "band-joist" intake units. "High-efficiency" condensing units can convert up to 98% of the energy in the fuel to heating the water. The exhaust gases of combustion are cooled and are mechanically ventilated either through the roof or through an exterior wall. At high combustion efficiencies a drain must be supplied to handle the water condensed out of the combustion products, which are primarily carbon dioxide and water vapor.

    In traditional plumbing in the UK, the space-heating boiler is set up to heat a separate hot water cylinder or water heater for potable hot water. Such water heaters are often fitted with an auxiliary electrical immersion heater for use if the boiler is out of action for a time. Heat from the space-heating boiler is transferred to the water heater vessel/container by means of a heat exchanger, and the boiler operates at a higher temperature than the potable hot water supply. Most potable water heaters in North America are completely separate from the space heating units, due to the popularity of HVAC/forced air systems in North America.

    Residential combustion water heaters manufactured since 2003 in the United States have been redesigned to resist ignition of flammable vapors and incorporate a thermal cutoff switch, per ANSI Z21.10.1. The first feature attempts to prevent vapors from flammable liquids and gases in the vicinity of the heater from being ignited and thus causing a house fire or explosion. The second feature prevents tank overheating due to unusual combustion conditions. These safety requirements were made in response to homeowners storing, or spilling, gasoline or other flammable liquids near their water heaters and causing fires. Since most of the new designs incorporate some type of flame arrestor screen, they require monitoring to make sure they do not become clogged with lint or dust, reducing the availability of air for combustion. If the flame arrestor becomes clogged, the thermal cutoff may act to shut down the heater.

    A wetback stove (NZ), wetback heater (NZ), or back boiler (UK), is a simple household secondary water heater using incidental heat. It typically consists of a hot water pipe running behind a fireplace or stove (rather than hot water storage), and has no facility to limit the heating. Modern wetbacks may run the pipe in a more sophisticated design to assist heat-exchange. These designs are being forced out by government efficiency regulations that do not count the energy used to heat water as 'efficiently' used.[6]

    Though not very popular in North America, another type of water heater developed in Europe predated the storage model. In London, England, in 1868, a painter named Benjamin Waddy Maughan invented the first instantaneous domestic water heater that did not use solid fuel. Named the geyser after an Icelandic gushing hot spring, Maughan's invention made cold water at the top flow through pipes that were heated by hot gases from a burner at the bottom. Hot water then flowed into a sink or tub. The invention was somewhat dangerous because there was no flue to remove heated gases from the bathroom. A water heater is still sometimes called a geyser in the UK.

    Maughn's invention influenced the work of a Norwegian mechanical engineer named Edwin Ruud. The first automatic, storage tank-type gas water was invented around 1889 by Ruud after he immigrated to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (US). The Ruud Manufacturing Company, still in existence today, made many advancements in tank-type and tankless water heater design and operation.

    Water typically enters residences in the US at about 10C (50F), depending on latitude and season. Hot water temperatures of 50C (122F) are usual for dish-washing, laundry and showering, which requires that the heater raise the water temperature about 40C (72F) if the hot water is mixed with cold water at the point of use. The Uniform Plumbing Code reference shower flow rate is 2.5 US gallons (9.5L) per minute. Sink and dishwasher usages range from 13 US gallons (411L) per minute.

    Natural gas in the US is measured in CCF (100 cubic feet), which is converted to a standardized energy unit called the therm, which is equal to 100,000 British thermal units (BTU). A BTU is the energy required to raise one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. A US gallon of water weighs 8.3 pounds (3.8kg). To raise 60 gallons of water from 10C (50F) to 50C (122F) requires 60 8.3 (122 50) = 35,856 BTU, or approximately 0.359CCF (35,856/100,000), at 88% efficiency.[clarification needed] A 157,000BTU/h heater (as might exist in a tankless heater) would take 15.6 minutes to do this, at 88% efficiency. At $1 per therm, the cost of the gas would be about 41 cents.

    In comparison, a typical 60 gallon tank electric water heater has a 4500 watt (15,355BTU) heating element, which at 100% efficient results in a heating time of about 2.34 hours. At 16cents/kWh the electricity would cost $1.68.

    Energy efficiencies of water heaters in residential use can vary greatly, particularly depending on manufacturer and model. However, electric heaters tend to be slightly more efficient (not counting power station losses) with recovery efficiency (how efficiently energy transfers to the water) reaching about 98%. Gas fired heaters have maximum recovery efficiencies of only about 8294% (the remaining heat is lost with the flue gasses). Overall energy factors can be as low as 80% for electric and 50% for gas systems. Natural gas and propane tank water heaters with energy factors of 62% or greater, as well as electric tank water heaters with energy factors of 93% or greater, are considered high-efficiency units. Energy Star-qualified natural gas and propane tank water heaters (as of September 2010) have energy factors of 67% or higher, which is usually achieved using an intermittent pilot together with an automatic flue damper, baffle blowers, or power venting. Direct electric resistance tank water heaters are not included in the Energy Star program, however, the Energy Star program does include electric heat pump units with energy factors of 200% or higher. Tankless gas water heaters (as of 2015) must have an energy factor of 90% or higher for Energy Star qualification. Since electricity production in thermal plants has efficiency levels ranging from only 15% to slightly over 55% (combined cycle gas turbine), with around 40% typical for thermal power stations, direct resistance electric water heating may be the least energy efficient option. However, use of a heat pump can make electric water heaters much more energy efficient and lead to a decrease in carbon dioxide emissions, even more so if a low carbon source of electricity is used.

    Unfortunately, it takes a great deal of energy to heat water, as one may experience when waiting to boil a gallon of water on a stove. For this reason, tankless on-demand water heaters require a powerful energy source. A standard 120-V, 15-ampere rated wall electric outlet, by comparison, only sources enough power to warm a disappointingly small amount of water: about 0.17 US gallons (0.64L) per minute at 40C (72F) temperature elevation.

    On April 16, 2015, as part of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA), new minimum standards for efficiency of residential water heaters set by the United States Department of Energy went into effect.[7] All new gas storage tank water heaters with capacities smaller than 55 US gallons (210l; 46impgal) sold in the United States in 2015 or later shall have an energy factor of at least 60% (for 50-US-gallon units, higher for smaller units), increased from the pre-2015 minimum standard of 58% energy factor for 50-US-gallon gas units. Electric storage tank water heaters with capacities less than 55 US gallons sold in the United States shall have an energy factor of at least 95%, increased from the pre-2015 minimum standard of 90% for 50-US-gallon electric units.

    Under the 2015 standard, for the first time, storage water heaters with capacities of 55 US gallons or larger now face stricter efficiency requirements than those of 50 US gallons or less. Under the pre-2015 standard, a 75-US-gallon (280l; 62impgal) gas storage water heater with a nominal input of 75,000 British thermal units (79,000kJ) or less was able to have an energy factor as low as 53%, while under the 2015 standard, the minimum energy factor for a 75-US-gallon gas storage tank water heater is now 74%, which can only be achieved by using condensing technology. Storage water heaters with a nominal input of 75,000 btu or greater are not currently affected by these requirements, since energy factor is not defined for such units. An 80-US-gallon (300l; 67impgal) electric storage tank water heater was able to have a minimum energy factor of 86% under the pre-2015 standard, while under the 2015 standard, the minimum energy factor for an 80-gallon electric storage tank water heater is now 197%, which is only possible with heat pump technology. This rating measures efficiency at the point of use. Depending on how electricity is generated, overall efficiency may be much lower. For example, in a traditional coal plant, only about 3035% of the energy in the coal ends up as electricity on the other end of the generator.[8] Losses on the electrical grid (including line losses and voltage transformation losses) reduce electrical efficiency further. According to data from the Energy Information Administration, transmission and distribution losses in 2005 consumed 6.1% of net generation.[8] In contrast, 90% of natural gas energy value is delivered to the consumer.[9] (In neither case is the energy expended exploring, developing and extracting coal or natural gas resources included in the quoted efficiency numbers.) Gas tankless water heaters shall have an energy factor of 82% or greater under the 2015 standards, which corresponds to the pre-2015 Energy Star standard.

    Water heaters potentially can explode and cause significant damage, injury, or death if certain safety devices are not installed. A safety device called a temperature and pressure relief (T&P or TPR) valve, is normally fitted on the top of the water heater to dump water if the temperature or pressure becomes too high. Most plumbing codes require that a discharge pipe be connected to the valve to direct the flow of discharged hot water to a drain, typically a nearby floor drain, or outside the living space. Some building codes allow the discharge pipe to terminate in the garage.[10]

    If a gas or propane fired water heater is installed in a garage or basement, many plumbing codes require that it be elevated at least 18in (46cm) above the floor to reduce the potential for fire or explosion due to spillage or leakage of combustible liquids in the garage. Furthermore, certain local codes mandate that tank-type heaters in new and retrofit installations must be secured to an adjacent wall by a strap or anchor to prevent tipping over and breaking the water and gas pipes in the event of an earthquake.[11]

    For older houses where the water heater is part of the space heating boiler, and plumbing codes allow, some plumbers install an automatic gas shutoff (such as the "Watts 210") in addition to a TPR valve. When the device senses that the temperature reaches 99C (210F), it shuts off the gas supply and prevents further heating.[citation needed] In addition, an expansion tank or exterior pressure relief valve must be installed to prevent pressure buildup in the plumbing from rupturing pipes, valves, or the water heater.

    Scalding is a serious concern with any water heater. Human skin burns quickly at high temperature, in less than 5 seconds at 60C (140F), but much slower at 53C (127F) it takes a full minute for a second degree burn. Older people and children often receive serious scalds due to disabilities or slow reaction times.[12] In the United States and elsewhere it is common practice to put a tempering valve on the outlet of the water heater. The result of mixing hot and cold water via a tempering valve is referred to as "tempered water".[13]

    A tempering valve mixes enough cold water with the hot water from the heater to keep the outgoing water temperature fixed at a more moderate temperature, often set to 50C (122F). Without a tempering valve, reduction of the water heater's setpoint temperature is the most direct way to reduce scalding. However, for sanitation, hot water is needed at a temperature that can cause scalding. This may be accomplished by using a supplemental heater in an appliance that requires hotter water. Most residential dishwashing machines, for example, include an internal electric heating element for increasing the water temperature above that provided by a domestic water heater.

    Two conflicting safety issues affect water heater temperaturethe risk of scalding from excessively hot water greater than 55C (131F), and the risk of incubating bacteria colonies, particularly Legionella, in water that is not hot enough to kill them. Both risks are potentially life-threatening and are balanced by setting the water heater's thermostat to 55C (131F). The European Guidelines for Control and Prevention of Travel Associated Legionnaires Disease recommend that hot water should be stored at 60C (140F) and distributed so that a temperature of at least 50C (122F) and preferably 55C (131F) is achieved within one minute at points of use.[14]

    If there is a dishwasher without a booster heater, it may require a water temperature within a range of 5760C (135140F) for optimum cleaning,[15] but tempering valves set to no more than 55C (131F) can be applied to faucets to avoid scalding. Tank temperatures above 60C (140F) may produce limescale deposits, which could later harbor bacteria, in the water tank. Higher temperatures may also increase etching of glassware in the dishwasher.

    Tank thermostats are not a reliable guide to the internal temperature of the tank. Gas-fired water tanks may have no temperature calibration shown. An electric thermostat shows the temperature at the elevation of the thermostat, but water lower in the tank can be considerably cooler. An outlet thermometer is a better indication of water temperature.[16]

    In the renewable energy industry (solar and heat pumps, in particular) the conflict between daily thermal Legionella control and high temperatures, which may drop system performance, is subject to heated debate. In a paper seeking a green exemption from normal Legionellosis safety standards, Europe's top CEN solar thermal technical committee TC 312 asserts that a 50% fall in performance would occur if solar water heating systems were heated to the base daily. However some solar simulator analysis work using Polysun 5 suggests that an 11% energy penalty is a more likely figure. Whatever the context, both energy efficiency and scalding safety requirements push in the direction of considerably lower water temperatures than the legionella pasteurization temperature of around 60C (140F).[citation needed]

    However, legionella can be safely and easily controlled with good design and engineering protocols. For instance raising the temperature of water heaters once a day or even once every few days to 55C (131F) at the coldest part of the water heater for 30 minutes effectively controls legionella. In all cases and in particular energy efficient applications, Legionnaires' disease is more often than not the result of engineering design issues that do not take into consideration the impact of stratification or low flow.[citation needed]

    It is also possible to control Legionella risks by chemical treatment of the water. This technique allows lower water temperatures to be maintained in the pipework without the associated Legionella risk. The benefit of lower pipe temperatures is that the heat loss rate is reduced and thus the energy consumption is reduced.

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    Water heating - Wikipedia

    Water Heater Replacement, Repair, and Installation | Roto … - June 24, 2018 by admin

    When you rely on Roto-Rooter for water heater repair or water heater replacement, you can expect professional service from a skilled plumber. Roto-Rooter offers 24-hour emergency water heater service, so you will have hot water again as quickly as possiblethe same day in most cases.

    View our Water Heater Infographic

    Conventional Water HeaterConventional water heaters store water in a tank and are available in a variety of gallon capacities. Electric or gas energy is required to maintain the water at a set temperature until a faucet is turned on and water is pulled through the pipe. A conventional electric or gas water heater should last about 11 years. Newer conventional water heaters are more energy efficient than older models. A high-efficiency model can reduce water heating bills by about 7 percent.

    Tankless Water HeaterA tankless water heater is generally considered more energy efficient because they heat water only as it is needed. When the tap is turned on, the heater goes to work and supplies continuous hot water. A tankless water heater often requires less space and can hang on a wall, but may require larger gas lines, special venting or additional electric circuits that add to the upfront costs. However, a tankless water heater has a life expectancy of 15-20 years and may reduce water heating bills by as much as 30 percent.

    Hybrid Heat Pump Water HeaterA hybrid water heater combines conventional tank storage with a heat pump that extracts heat from the air and uses it to help heat the water. A hybrid water heater uses existing water and electrical connections, and can reduce water heating costs by almost 60 percent.

    Solar Water Heater SystemsSolar water heater systems use the suns energy to generate hot water for your home. Solar water heaters are either passive or active. Passive solar water heating systems are typically less expensive than active systems, but they're usually not as efficient. However, passive systems can be more reliable and may last longer. Active solar water heating systems utilize pumps and controls to circulate water into the home. Most solar water heating systems require a well insulated storage tank and a backup system for cloudy days and high water demand.

    *All services not available from all locations.

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    Water Heater Replacement, Repair, and Installation | Roto ...

    How to Install a Tankless Hot Water Heater: 15 Steps - October 13, 2017 by admin

    Edit Article

    You will thank yourself a million times over for choosing tankless water heating. Be aware that there will be a slight delay for the hot water to arrive at your fixtures and that the money saved in standby loss is offset by the higher cost of equipment, gas pipe, flue pipe and materials.

    1

    CAUTION: Tankless water heaters generally require larger diameter gas supply lines, higher voltage power supply (if contemplating electric on-demand), dedicated - special stainless steel flue (known as Category II, III or IV) or larger diameter exhaust system. Please take these things into consideration before you decide to DIY.

    2

    It is highly recommended that you use special union connector sets for the water supply which employ bypass capability. This will allow for simple, easy de-liming maintenance process in the future.

    3

    Turn off main incoming water line to house.

    4

    Disconnect supply line from old water heater. You will probably have some water left in the line even though your main has been shut off. Place a bucket underneath water bib to catch any spills.

    5

    Disconnect heat source from old water heater as follows: for gas, (propane) make sure the supply valve is closed (this is usually determined by the direction of the handle to the valve sitting either in the same direction as the line "open", opposite the direction of the line "closed"). For and electric water heater, simply unplug the appliance from the wall outlet.

    6

    Once you have completely disconnected the old water heater you must remove it from it's current parking space and make sure to dispose of it according to the laws in the area you live in.

    7

    Remove your new tankless water heater from the carton and place all hardware and instructional material close at hand.

    8

    Determine the location best suited for this appliance and make sure you have allowed for the proper clearances around it to comply with all state and local building codes.

    9

    Mount tankless heater on wall according to manufacturers instructions, making sure that you have appropriately supported its weight.

    10

    Now you're ready to hook up all the connections.

    11

    If you have gas, install ventilation ducting. Typically tankless water heaters requires larger flue or special stainless steel flue.

    12

    Begin with the supply line (water line).

    13

    Next should be the heat source. If your water heater uses electricity, plug it in to the wall.* If your water heater is gas, you will need to hook up a gas supply line from the stub at the wall to the new water heater. Open the valve so that the handle is in the same direction as the line.

    14

    Following manufacturers directions, light the pilot on the gas water heater.

    15

    Now go to your favorite shower location and enjoy an endless stream of hot water. All that work was well worth it!

    Do I need to mount a gas tankless heater upright, or can it be laid on its back?

    wikiHow Contributor

    As with any gas appliance, heat rises so the unit needs to be mounted upright and leveled.

    After I install this, will I have hot water immediately?

    wikiHow Contributor

    Once installed the unit will provide hot water in accordance with its rated "rise time." You will probably notice some lag between opening a hot water tap and the water from the tap being hot, similar to having a tank-style heater. The hot water still needs to get from the unit to the tap.

    If my tankless water heater is gas and I have a 1/2 inch gas line to the unit, will it work for a year and then have a problem?

    wikiHow Contributor

    It depends on what kind it is. If it is an under-$200 tank then yes, but if it is over that price then no, it will be over 2 and 1/2 years until you should start noticing any problems.

    What do I do if I have a recirculating pump?

    wikiHow Contributor

    Tankless hot water heaters are "on demand," and cannot be used for recirculating systems.

    How can I insert batteries in the geyser?

    wikiHow Contributor

    If you were to put batteries inside the geyser, they would most likely burn out because it would be so warm. Plug it into a wall or somewhere instead.

    Ask a Question

    Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 229,894 times.

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    How to Install a Tankless Hot Water Heater: 15 Steps

    How to Install a Hot Water Heater – The Family Handyman - September 3, 2017 by admin

    Home Plumbing Water Heater How to Install a Hot Water Heater

    When your water heater begins to leak, you have to install a new one fast.

    We're replacing a natural gas water heater in our demonstration. The steps for replacing a propane water heater are exactly the same, and those for an electric water heater are similar.

    In any case, play it safe. Call your local department of inspections and ask if you need a permit. And make sure a plumbing or electrical inspector checks your work.

    Your water heater is dead when the tank leaks. The telltale sign that your water heater needs replacing is a slow drip underneath, usually showing up as a trail of rusty water. This means that the steel tank has rusted through and can't be fixed. Other symptoms, such as insufficient or no hot water, usually signal other problems that you can fix.

    If you spot a drip, plan to replace the water heater right away. Don't wait until the leak gets bad. Most residential water heaters cost $150 to $400 for either gas or electric, plus $200 to $450 if you have a plumber install it. More expensive gas water heaters with special venting systems also are available. But they're more difficult to install, and we won't deal with them here.

    New water heaters come with installation instructions and lots of warnings to make sure you handle the gas, electrical and other connections safely. In this article, we'll supplement those basics with techniques and real world advice from several professional plumbers.

    But take heed: You'll be working with natural gas, propane or electricity, all of which are hazardous. If you don't feel confident, call in a pro to take care of the tough parts. And have your work inspected when it's done.

    Plumbing codes vary by region. Describe your planned installation to your local plumbing inspector, including the types of materials you intend to use for your new connections. Better to get guidance first so you don't have to change things later!

    To print out this image, see the Additional Info at the end of this article.

    Many homes have galvanized steel or plastic (CPVC) water supply pipes. Galvanized steel pipes are difficult to replace. We recommend that you remove the pipes back to the nearest tee, screw on a plastic-lined galvanized nipple and complete the connections with copper as shown in our photo series.

    Because of potential heat buildup, keep plastic pipe at least 6 in. away from the vent and tank. Make a transition from plastic to copper with a special coupling that's available wherever CPVC is sold.

    Flexible copper connectors are easier to install than solid copper, especially when the existing pipes and the tank inlets don't line up. But not all local codes allow them. If yours does, take special care not to pinch or kink them. You could get a leak.

    Turn off the gas to the water heater by turning the nearby shutoff valve a quarter turn. When off, the handle should be at a right angle to the pipe. Shut off the main water supply as well and drain the lines by opening a faucet on the lowest floor.

    Attach a garden hose to the drain valve and drain the water left in the tank. Caution: The water will be scalding hot! Disconnect the gas line at the nearby union with a pair of wrenches and unscrew the pipe from the gas control valve with a pipe wrench.

    Unscrew the vent pipe from the vent hood and move it to the side. Then cut the hot and cold water lines with a tube cutter. (Unscrew unions for galvanized pipe or the nuts on flexible connectors if you have them.) Slide the old water heater out of the way.

    Wrap the threads of the new temperature and pressure relief valve with Teflon tape (three turns). Screw it tightly into the tank with a pipe wrench. Attach a copper discharge pipe (see Fig. A for routing details).

    Solder new copper adapters to 6-in. lengths of 3/4-in. copper and screw the assemblies into the hot water outlet and cold water inlet ports in the top of the tank. Add short, plastic lined nipples to shield against galvanic corrosion, especially if you have hard water or if they're required by local codes.

    Slide the new water heater into place, recut or extend the old tubing to meet the new, and solder the tubing together using copper slip couplings. If the tubing doesn't line up, offset the lines as needed with pairs of 45-degree elbows.

    Reconnect the vent. Shove it tightly over the draft hood and anchor it with three 3/8-in. No. 6 sheet metal screws. Predrill the holes. The vent should rise at least 12 in. vertically before turning at the first elbow.

    Reconnect the gas line. Coat the threaded ends with pipe joint compound and screw the first nipple into the gas valve. Use two pipe wrenches to avoid stressing the valve. Reassemble the remaining nipples, finishing up with the union (Photo 2). Then follow these four steps to fill the tank: (1) Close the drain valve; (2) turn the water back on at the main shutoff and open the cold water valve to the water heater (leave it open); (3) turn on a nearby hot water faucet until water comes out; and (4) inspect all the joints and fittings for water leaks.

    Most water heaters rely on a natural draft to draw combustion fumes up the flue. If the draft doesn't work, those fumes, possibly containing deadly carbon monoxide, will spill out into your home. After completing your installation, check the draft.

    Close all exterior doors and windows and turn on your kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans. Then open a nearby hot water faucet until you hear the gas burner in the water heater ignite. After a minute, move a smoking match around the edge of the draft hood (Photo 7) on top of the heater. The smoke should be drawn up the vent pipe. If the smoke doesn't draw, the fumes from the burner aren't venting. Turn off the gas to the water heater and call a licensed plumber to correct the problem.

    Turn on the gas and check connections for leaks by brushing a 50-50 mixture of dishwashing liquid and water over the joints. If the mixture bubbles, you have a leak. Tighten or reconnect joints that leak. Wipe the joints dry when finished. Call the plumbing inspector to check over your work.

    Follow the how-to advice that accompanies the photos to make sure the connections are tight.

    Light the pilot light according to the manufacturer's directions. (For electric water heaters, turn the power on at the main panel after the electrical inspector checks your work.) Finally, set the temperature to 120 degrees F., following the installation instructions.

    Light the pilot light in the new water heater and adjust the temperature setting.

    First turn off the power to the water heater at your main electrical panel. Then follow the same draining procedures as for a gas water heater.

    When the water heater is drained, disconnect the electrical wires from the screw terminals under the access panel, which is usually located near the top. (If you don't have electrical experience, hire an electrician to handle all the electrical wiring.)

    Follow the manufacturer's instructions for wiring the new water heater. If the new water heater is shorter and the old wires won't reach, surface-mount a 4-in. x 4-in. x 1-1/2 in. metal electrical box on the wall or ceiling nearby, run the old wires to the box, and then run a new section of armored cable or electrical conduit to the water heater. Check the instructions and make sure the rating of the old fuse or circuit breaker is high enough to handle the new water heater. In addition, the circuit should have a shutoff switch within sight of the water heater.

    Call your local electrical inspector before you begin the job. You'll probably need a permit. Then, when you're finished, have the electrical inspector check your work.

    CAUTION: Aluminum wiring requires special handling. If you have aluminum wiring, call in a licensed pro who's certified to work with it. This wiring is dull gray, not the dull orange that's characteristic of copper.

    Jeff Gorton, an editor at The Family Handyman, will show you how to remove and dispose of a water heater in our video tutorial. He will also show you the easy way to carry a water heater out of your home, even if you are working alone.

    Have the necessary tools for this DIY project lined up before you startyoull save time and frustration.

    Avoid last-minute shopping trips by having all your materials ready ahead of time. Heres a list.

    More:
    How to Install a Hot Water Heater - The Family Handyman

    How to Install a Tankless Water Heater Ron Hazelton … - September 3, 2017 by admin

    RON HAZELTON:You know, folks are always saying to me, Ron, everything always goes so smoothly on the show, it's never like that when I take on a home improvement project. Well, I can tell you, as a homeowner and a do it yourself guy, I'm not immune from the kind of surprises that are a part of just about any home improvement project.

    As an example, I want to tell you about something that happened to me the other day. It all began when I came into the kitchen and turned on this faucet. Instead of a nice, smooth, bubbly stream of water, I got a lot of spitting and sputtering. I've seen this before. It almost always means debris is clogging the faucet aerator. So I unscrewed the device, disassembled it and sure enough, I found small white bits of material which I carefully picked out.

    Then I washed the aerator thoroughly and replaced it. But a few days later, the sputtering was back. Then I went to take a shower up here in the master bathroom, but there was practically nothing coming out. So I unscrewed the shower head, took a look inside and found more of that same debris that had clogged my kitchen faucet.

    Then my washing machine stopped working. It wasn't getting any water. I unscrewed the hose and, sure enough, you guessed it. Well, it seemed like it was time for a little research. I got on my computer and did some poking around. So my online research has led me to believe that the culprit in all this might be right there, in the form of something called sediment.

    Now sediment can collect in a water heater from dirt, sand or minerals that are suspended in the water supply. Over time, these deposits can build up quite an accumulation on the bottom of the tank, cutting down on burner efficiency.

    Incoming water can stir up the sediment and send it to faucets, aerators, shower heads, dishwashers, clothes washing machines, and any other water-using appliance in the house.

    The online advice I'd gotten said I should flush my water heater and instructed me to turn my gas valve to the pilot position, connect a hose to the spigot at the bottom of my water heater, shut off the incoming cold water, open a hot water faucet somewhere in the house, and then twist open the spigot on the water heater.

    Sure enough, out came the water, and with it, quite a bit of what looked like sand and more of those curious white chips that I'd found clogging up my plumbing fixtures. It looked almost like fragments of plastic. I was baffled. So it was back online for some more research.

    To my surprise and amazement, I discovered that back in the mid '90s, some water heater manufacturers had unknowingly installed defective plastic tubes called dip tubes in thousands of water heaters. Over time, these tubes could disintegrate. It appeared that my unit was one of those affected. So I decided to take out my dip tube, inspect it and replace it if necessary.

    Well, this is not good news. This is the nipple that I took out of the top of the water heater. It's supposed to have a plastic tube attached to it like this, called a dip tube. Well, in my case, that tube has actually broken off and dropped into the tank. Now if you could see inside the tank, you'd find the dip tube lying there on the bottom. And if you look more closely, you'd see those tiny fragments of plastic scattered about just waiting to be carried through my pipes and into my plumbing fixtures.

    I can't think of any way I'm gonna get that out of there and as long as it's inside, it's gonna continue to deteriorate and contaminate my plumbing system. So I think I'm gonna have to replace the water heater.

    Well, what started out as a sputtery water faucet has, so far, led to the need for a new water heater. Bernard at my local home improvement center listens to my story and then directs me to something called a tankless water heater.

    So you're saying that this water heater can produce as much water as these, it's so much smaller.

    Bernard explains that a conventional water heater works by keeping a tank full of water continually hot and ready for use. Tankless versions, on the other hand, only heat water on demand. When hot water is turned on anywhere in the house, the unit starts and water is brought up to temperature instantaneously as it continuously flows through the internal heat exchanger.

    Well, I'm sold. So I load my tankless water heater onto a cart and into my truck. Now, being the do-it-yourself type, I entertained thoughts of installing it myself and perhaps I could have, but in the end, I opt for professional help.

    The first thing plumber Mike Iovanna does is install a T and valve in my existing gas line. Then he and his partner Jim Morrissette begin running the new supply line. This is called corrugated stainless steel tubing and in many communities, including mine, it can be used in place of conventional black iron for gas lines.

    Now Mike and Jim move on to the water lines. First they tie in the new lines to the existing ones, then get ready to run the copper pipes the last few feet to the new water heater. These brackets, called bell hangers, will hold the pipes securely in place and prevent them from coming into contact with the walls.

    This will make it possible to apply insulation later and prevent chafing damage to the pipe itself. Before copper can be soldered, the pipes and connectors have to be cleaned to remove oxidation. Then soldering flux is applied. This paste enables the solder to flow more evenly and prevents the copper from oxidizing again when it's heated. Next, the pipe and connectors are slipped together. The copper is then heated with a torch. When it reaches the correct temperature, the tip of the solder is touched to the metal.

    It melts instantly and is drawn into the joint by capillary action. Now, notice how Mike has bent the solder into an L-shape, so he can easily reach all the way around the pipe. When we come back, we'll put in the new tankless water heater and then enter the world of endless hot water.[MUSIC]

    I built this platform from two-by-fours and plywood so that I can mount the heater about four inches out from the wall. This will allow the vent to clear the floor joists as it passes to the outside.

    After drilling holes using a carbide tipped bit, I drive in these tapcon screws. They're masonry anchors that actually cut threads into concrete. Once I've secured the platform cover in place, a single screw will allow me to hang the water heater on the front.

    Then I can drive in additional screws which secure the mounting brackets. Now the plumbers can come back to make the final hookups. First, Mike connects the gas shutoff valve and sediment trap -- that's the short section of pipe running downward, then attaches the corrugated stainless steel supply line.

    Jim now makes the last few connections between the water shutoff valves and the heater -- then does a final bit of soldering. With the gas turned on and the air bled out of the line, a sniffer is used to make certain there are no leaks.

    This is heat resistant silicone sealant that I'm applying to the heater vent. Next, I slip on a connector -- and secure it to the vent with a hose clamp. Then I put on the first section of stainless steel vent pipe, pull the retaining ring down into place, and bend over the tabs that lock the ring in position.

    Next, I set a 90 degree elbow in place. Then using a long shaft quarter-inch bit, bore through the rim joist to the outside at a point that will be the center of the vent hole. Outside, I use the metal wall thimble as a template, tracing the outline onto the shingles.

    Using a spade bit, I bore a one-inch hold near the edge of what will be the opening. Then I grab a reciprocating saw, insert the blade into the hole, and begin cutting.[SAWING SOUNDS]Ready. Now I need to remove a few shingles around the edge of the opening so that the flange on the wall thimble can set directly against the plywood sheathing underneath. The purpose of the thimble is to prevent the vent pipe from having any direct contact with wood as it passes through the wall.

    Silicone caulk, applied to the outer flange, will insure a water tight seal on the outside. Next, I drill pilot holes through the stainless steel flange -- then drive in screws that pull it into tight contact with the sheathing. Finally, I seal the screw heads and the building paper with more silicone.

    From the basement side, I slip the interior flange into place, attach another straight section -- slide the retaining ring into position, and bend over the tabs to lock it all together. Now, from the outside, I slide through a section of vent with an elbow attached and connect it to the vent inside.

    Finally, I slip on one last vertical section of pipe on the outside with two 90-degree elbows on the end that form a U to prevent rain water from entering. One last connection, and the vent is finished. The final job outside is to replace the shingles I removed earlier. All that's left now is to plug in the power for the thermostat and on board microprocessor, insulate the hot water pipe coming from the heater, turn on the gas and fire it up.

    Now, one of the obvious benefits of this system is that I've replaced a rather massive tank in my basement with a relatively compact unit that's up out of the way on the wall. But the real payoff is that I will now have enough hot water to wash the dishes, give the kids a bath and take a shower, all at the same time.

    In addition to the main thermostat, I also have a bedroom unit that allows me to control the water temperature remotely, if I choose. So that's my story of how a simple sputtering faucet led to a discovery about sediment and defective dip tubes, which required me to replace my old water heater with new technology, which ended up providing us with unlimited hot water. Yeah, there's no question about it, home improvement can be a journey and an adventure.

    Originally posted here:
    How to Install a Tankless Water Heater Ron Hazelton ...

    How to Install a Water Heater Using a SharkBite Connector - September 3, 2017 by admin

    Learn how to install SharkBite Flexible Water Heater Connectors to connect hot and cold water supply lines to a water heater.

    Transcript:Welcome to SharkBite Training Videos. My name is Craig and in this video I will show you how to use and install SharkBite Flexible Water Heater Connectors, which are used in residential and commercial applications to connect the hot and cold supply lines to the water heater.

    These stainless steel braided connectors make fast work of water heater hot and cold supply line hook-up. The ability to rotate the SharkBite connector after it is pushed onto the pipe and the flexibility of the braided hose allow connections in tight spaces and without additional fittings. On gas heaters, ensure the hose remains clear of the flu.

    To install the water heater connector, simply tighten the threaded end of the flex hose onto the water heater then push the other end of the flex hose onto the pipe up to the depth mark. Remember to de-burr and mark copper pipe with the SharkBite Depth & De-burr Gauge.

    SharkBite Flexible Water Heater Connectors are available in and 3/4, in various lengths. Lead-free compliant versions are also available.

    SharkBite Flexible Water Heater Connectors also come with an integral SharkBite Ball Valve and couplings suitable for use on copper, CPVC and PEX.

    Original post:
    How to Install a Water Heater Using a SharkBite Connector

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