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    Category: Walkways and Steps


    Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System - February 8, 2019 by admin

    Recommended Guidelines/Priorities for Sidewalks and WalkwaysIntroduction

    According to the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (also known as the Green Book): Providing safe places for people to walk is an essential responsibility of all government entities involved in constructing or regulating the construction of public rights-of-way.

    It is a basic principle that there be well-designed, safe places for people to walk along all public rights-of-way. How this will be accomplished will depend upon the type of road, whether it is new construction or a retrofitted area, and funding availability.

    On February 24, 1999, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Administrator Kenneth R. Wykle, in a memorandum to FHWA field offices, stated, We expect every transportation agency to make accommodations for bicycling and walking a routine part of their planning, design, construction, operations, and maintenance activities. Again, in February 28, 2000, Administrator Wykle sent a memorandum to the field offices in transmitting the new Design Guidance Language called for in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). The guidance, entitled Accommodating Bicycle and Pedestrian Travel: A Recommended ApproachA U.S. DOT Policy Statement on Integrating Bicycling and Walking Into Transportation Infrastructure, states that bicycling and walking facilities will be incorporated into all transportation projects unless exceptional circumstances exist. The exceptional circumstances are spelled out, and he asked the division offices to work with State departments of transportation (DOTs) in the implementation of the guidance.

    Government agencies at the State, regional, and local level are developing regulations for funding, installing, and retrofitting sidewalks. Because there is a great need to improve sidewalk facilities, it is important for these transportation agencies to direct funding to sidewalk improvement and installation projects that will be most beneficial to the safety and mobility of all citizens.

    This document is intended to provide agencies at the State, regional, and local levels with tools they can use to develop guidelines for creating places for people to walk.

    This document is limited to creating guidelines for sidewalks, which addresses only one major pedestrian need; other needs that merit further consideration include the ability to cross a street and intersection design.

    Many communities may wish to revisit their roadway planning and rehabilitation criteria. Policies, standard plans, subdivision regulations, and right-of-way requirements should be considered to make sure that sidewalks are included in new construction and rehabilitation projects.

    Typically, communities should focus on: (1) improving conditions for people who are currently walking (including improved accessibility to sidewalk facilities for pedestrians with disabilities), (2) increasing levels of walking, and (3) reducing the number of crashes involving pedestrians. Setting targets will help in the development of criteria for installing and retrofitting sidewalks.

    There are several ways in which pedestrians can be accommodated in the public right-of-way:

    Places for people to walk should be provided in all new construction. Retrofitting will require priorities to be set, and these guidelines are intended to help identify where the need is greatest for adding sidewalks and other facilities.

    All new construction must include places for people to walk, on bothsides of a street or roadway. New construction inurban and suburban areas should provide sidewalks.Recommended guidelines for new sidewalk and walkwayinstallation are given in Table 1 below.

    In developing areas and rural areas, it may be acceptablealthough less desirableto start with shoulders and unpaved paths and then phase in sidewalks as development accelerates. Criteria for installing sidewalks along with new development should be implemented with the following in mind:

    There is a desire in some residential developments to retain a rural atmosphere. Very often this occurs in places that are not truly rural, but rather suburban or exurban (they may have been rural before being developed). Frequently, it is in such places that pedestrian crashes occur that are directly attributable to pedestrians not having places to walk. To address both the goal of having safe places to walk and that of the community to retain a certain atmosphere, path systems can be developed that do not look like traditional sidewalks, but do meet walking needs. Even in rural areas, people do want to walk and such facilities should be provided.

    Developers in outlying areas may argue that the land use will never fully develop into a pedestrian area. Given that people walk despite not having facilitiesfor exercise, going to friends houses, accessing transit, etc.it is neither rational nor acceptable to build places that do not have places for people to walk. Residential developments that were added in suburban areas, until recently, typically had sidewalks and functioned very well.

    Sidewalks may not be needed on short residential cul-de-sacs (61 m [200 ft] or less), if there is a system of trails behind the houses and driveway aprons are properly constructed for pedestrians with disabilities. However, it is not a good practice to have an entire neighborhood without sidewalks.

    Sidewalks should be continuous; interruptions may require pedestriansto cross a busy arterial street midblock or at an unsignalized locationto continue walking. Sidewalks should also be fully accessible to sidestreets and adjacent sidewalks and buildings.

    1 acre=0.4 hectares (ha)

    Many of the streets built in recent decades do not have sidewalks, and these streets need to be retrofitted. In other cases, existing sidewalks need to be replaced. Establishing priorities for installing sidewalks involves three steps: (1) develop a prioritized list of criteria, (2) develop a methodology for using the criteria to evaluate potential sites, and (3) create a prioritized list of sites for sidewalk improvements.

    The following are suggested criteria for establishing priorities. Select three or more of them when developing your own set of criteria. The key is to select criteria that produce the outcomes desired for your community:

    Seattle recently completed an inventory of all sidewalksin the city using a three-step process:

    The totaleffort took the equivalent of one full-time person working for 6 months in a city of 530,000 population,218.3 km2 (84.3 mi2) of land use and 2,659 roadway kilometers (1,652 roadway miles) [1,934 residential street kilometers (1,202 residential street miles) and 724 arterial kilometers (450 arterial miles)]. Once the inventory was completed, the information was combined on a map with three other types of information:

    Once the map was printed,it was very easy to see where the three colorsoverlapped, two colors overlapped, etc. The final step was to have the computer calculate the sidewalk deficiencies in the overlapping areas. They found, for example, that there were less than 3 km (2 mi) of arterialstreets that were within school walking zones,a pedestrian generator area, and a neighborhood commercial area that did not have sidewalks on either side of the street.

    There were nearly 4.8 km (3 mi) of arterial streets that were within school walking areas, but outside of neighborhood commercial areas and pedestrian generators that did not have sidewalks on either side of the street. This was compared to a citywidedeficiency of more than 32 km (20 mi) of arterialstreets that lacked sidewalks on both sides of the street.

    By developing these and other numbers, the pedestrian program was able to put together packages of information that demonstrated what could be accomplishedwith additional funding. What everyone thoughtto be an unsolvable multi-million-dollar problemwas reduced to a series of smaller, fundableprojects that decisionmakers could endorse. Theresult was increased funding and a new optimismthat meaningful progress could be made on solving Seattles sidewalkdeficiencies.

    The two recommended methodologies for selecting locations for improvements are: (1) the overlapping priorities method, and (2) the points method. Establishing priorities should consume only a small percentage of a program budgetthe level of effort put into prioritization should be proportionate to the size of the capital budget.

    There is no single right way to select which criteria to use when developing priorities. The criteria and methodology should balance safety measures, such as vehicle speeds and pedestrian crash data; pedestrian usage measures, such as proximity to schools or commercial areas; continuity between origins and destinations; and accessibility for pedestrians with disabilities.

    1. Overlapping Priorities Method The easiest and cheapest way to identify overlapping priorities is through graphical representation; the intent is to identify locations that meet multiple criteria. This methodology is especially useful in cases where there is not a lot of staff time and funding for detailed analysis. It can be accomplished using a GIS system or it can be done by hand.

    The best way to describe this methodology is by example. Assume that priorities are going to be developed based on transit routes, proximity to schools, people with disabilities, and neighborhood commercial areas. Start with a map of your jurisdiction. Using a color pen, identify those arterials that have high transit use; draw a half-mile circle around every elementary school and around locations that attract people with disabilities; and color in the neighborhood commercial areas. This visual approach will make areas of overlapping priorities become immediately clear. The streets without sidewalks within the overlapping areas are the highest priority for retrofitting sidewalks.

    2. Points Method A weighted points system can be used where staff time and funding are available for more detailed analysis, or if there is a large amount of capital available for sidewalk construction. If there are a lot of competing projects, a more sophisticated point system can be used to explain to the public why certain projects were funded and others were not.

    A point system can be developed in many ways; the system should be simple and produce desired outcomes. Any and all of the criteria listed above can be assigned a range of numbers and then be used to analyze the need for improvement at given locations. For example, a corridor could be assigned points based on the number of walking along roadway crashes over a 5-year period, the number of buses that travel the corridor during peak times, and the proximity to elementary schools. This method is time-consuming because it will be necessary to analyze multiple locations with sidewalk needs to create a list of priority projects.

    3. Prioritized List Both the overlapping priorities and the points methods will produce an initial list of prioritized projects. The next step is to refine the list so that it works, using common sense. One important consideration is that when roadways are resurfaced, rehabilitated, or replaced, curb ramps must be added if there are pedestrian walkways. In addition, the U.S. Department of Justice considers bus stops to be pedestrian walkways requiring access for people with disabilities, so areas near transit should be given priority accordingly. Improving pedestrian crossings, particularly on arterial streets, may also be an important part of some projects. Other important questions include: Are priority locations ones that might be expected? Are there many surprises? Are priority locations in line with community priorities and expectations? Are some priorities at locations with very low pedestrian use? If the answer to these questions is "yes," then the criteria or the methodology should be evaluated and possibly revised to create outcomes that better reflect expectations and desires. The methodologies should be used to prioritize known needs, not to create a new set of priorities that dont make sense.

    The final step is to create packages of fundable projects. The prioritization process should result in reasonable packages that decision-makers can embrace and support. For example, it may be possible to install sidewalks on both sides of every arterial within a half-mile of every elementary school for $5 million over a period of 5 years. Or, it may be possible to replace sidewalks in neighborhood commercial areas for $2 million over a period of 3 years. The objective is to take what may appear to be an unsolvable problem (endless need for more funds) and to package it in such a way that it begins to address some of the most critical pedestrian needs in a community.

    Continuous sidewalks should be placed along both sides of all fully improved arterial, collector, and local streets in urban and suburban areas. Sidewalks should connect to side streets and adjacent buildings. Accessible crossings should be provided across median islands, frontage road medians, and other raised islands.

    A safe walking area must be provided outside the motor vehicle traffic travelway. Sidewalks along rural roads should be well separated from the travelway. Isolated residential areas should have a pedestrian connection to the rest of the rural community for school access, shopping, and recreational trips.

    An off-road pathalso known as a side pathis a type of walkway used in some rural settings. This path may be paved or unpaved, and is separated from the roadway by a grass or landscaped strip without curbing. This maintains a rural look, but is safer and more comfortable than a shoulder.

    A paved or unpaved shoulder should be provided as a minimum along the road. Paved shoulders are preferred to provide an all-weather walking surface, since they also serve bicyclists and improve the overall safety of the road. A 1.5-m- (5-ft-) wide shoulder is acceptable for pedestrians along low-volume rural highways. Greater width, up to 2.4 to 3.0 m (8 to 10 ft), is desirable along high-speed highways, particularly with a large number of trucks. An edgeline should be marked to separate the shoulder from the travelway.

    The width of a sidewalk depends primarily on the number of pedestrians who are expected to use the sidewalk at a given time high-use sidewalks should be wider than low-use sidewalks. "Street furniture" and sidewalk cafes require extra width, too. A sidewalk width of 1.5 m (5 ft) is needed for two adult pedestrians to comfortably walk side-by-side, and all sidewalks should be constructed to be at least this width. The minimum sidewalk widths for cities large and small are:

    *2.4-m (8-ft) minimum in commercial areas with a planter strip, 3.7-m (12-ft) minimum in commercial areas with no planter strip.

    These widths represent a clear or unobstructed width. Point obstructions may be acceptable as long as there is at least 914 mm (36 in) for wheelchair maneuvering (no less than 1,219 mm (48 in) wide as a whole); however, every attempt should be made to locate streetlights, utility poles, signposts, fire hydrants, mail boxes, parking meters, bus benches, and other street furniture out of the sidewalk. When that is not possible, sidewalk furnishings and other obstructions should be located consistently so that there is a clear travel zone for pedestrians with vision impairments and a wider sidewalk should be provided to accommodate this line of obstructions.

    Similarly, when sidewalks abut storefronts, the sidewalk should be built 0.6 m (2 ft) wider to accommodate window-shoppers and to avoid conflicts with doors opening and pedestrians entering or leaving the buildings.

    Many 1.2-m (4-ft) sidewalks were built in the past. This width does not provide adequate clearance room or mobility for pedestrians passing in opposite directions. All new and retrofitted sidewalks should be 1.5 m (5 ft) feet or wider.

    Buffers between pedestrians and motor vehicle traffic are important to provide greater levels of comfort, security, and safety to pedestrians. Landscaped buffers provide a space for poles, signs, and other obstructions; they serve as a snow storage area; and they protect pedestrians from splash. The ideal width of a planting strip is 1.8 m (6 ft). Minimum allowable landscape buffer widths are:

    With a landscaped buffer between the sidewalk and the street, care must be taken to ensure that the bus stops are fully accessible to wheelchair users and have connections to the sidewalk. Irrigation may be needed in areas of low precipitation.

    Buffers also provide the added space to make curb ramps and landings accessible. When the ramps and landings are designed properly, they are also better utilized by those pushing strollers or pulling carts and luggage.

    If a planting strip is not provided between the sidewalk and roadway, then the sidewalk width should be a minimum of 1.8 m (6 ft).

    Where landscaped sidewalk buffers cannot be provided due to constraints, on-street parking, a shoulder, or a bike lane can serve to buffer pedestrians from motor vehicle traffic lanes.

    Concrete is the preferred sidewalk surface, providing the longest service life and requiring the least amount of maintenance. Asphalt is an acceptable walkway surface in rural areas and in park settings, and crushed granite may also be an acceptable all-weather material in parks or rural areas, but they generally require higher levels of maintenance and are less desirable for wheelchair users.

    Sidewalks may be constructed with bricks and pavers if they are constructedto avoid settling; bricks should be easy to reset or replace if they causea tripping hazard. Also, bricks and/or pavers can cause vibrations thatare painful for pedestrians who use mobility aids and, therefore, it maybe appropriate to use bricks or pavers only for sidewalk borders in certainsituations. There are stamping molds that create the visual appearanceof bricks and pavers; these have the advantages of traditional concretewithout some of the maintenance issues and roughness associated with bricksand pavers. There are commercially available products that produce a varietyof aesthetically pleasing surfaces that are almost impossible to distinguishfrom real bricks and pavers. However, stamped materials can also havemaintenance issues, since, for example, the sidewalk may never look thesame again after repairs are made.

    It is also possible to enhance sidewalks aesthetics while still providing a smooth walking surface by combining a concrete main walking area with brick edging where street furniture (lights, trees, poles, etc.) can be placed. For example, in a CBD, a 4.6-m (15-ft) total sidewalk width might include a 2.4-m (8-ft) clear concrete sidewalk with a 2.1-m (7-ft) edge.

    Sidewalks should be built to accommodate all pedestrians and should be as flat as practical. Sidewalks should be held to a running grade of 5 percent or less, if possible. However, sidewalks that follow the grade of a street in hilly terrain cannot meet this requirement, for obvious reasons, and may follow the grade of the street. The maximum grade for a curb ramp is 1:12 (8.3 percent).

    The maximum sidewalk cross-slope is 1:50 (2 percent) to minimize travel effort for wheelchair users and still provide drainage. At least 0.9 m (3 ft) of flat sidewalk area is required at the top of a sloped driveway to accommodate wheelchair use. In some cases, it may be necessary to bend the sidewalk around the back of the driveway to achieve a level surface of 0.9 m (3 ft).

    Curb ramps must be provided at all intersection crossings (marked or unmarked) and midblock crosswalks for wheelchair access. These ramps also accommodate strollers, carts, the elderly, and pedestrians with mobility limitations. Curb ramps should be as flat as possible, but must have a slope no greater than 1:12 (8.3 percent). Abrupt changes in elevation at the top or bottom should be avoided. The minimum curb ramp width is 914 mm (36 in); however, 1,219 mm (48 in) is the desirable minimum. If a curb ramp is located where pedestrians must walk across the ramp, the ramp must have flared sides of no more than 1:10 (10 percent) slope. These flares are not needed where ramps are placed in a landscaped area. Curb ramps also require a minimum of 914 mm (36 in) of level and clear passage (1,219 mm (48 in) or more are desirable) at the top.

    Two separate curb ramps, one for each crosswalk, should be provided at each corner of an intersection. Diagonal curb ramps provide no directional guidance to vision-impaired pedestrians, and force wheelchair users to maneuver in the crosswalk. Raised islands in a crossing must have at least a 1,219-mm (48-in) cut-through that is level with the street; this is generally preferable to curb ramps, which force wheelchair users to go up and down.

    The distance to the bottom of signs placed in or right next to a sidewalk should be at least 2 m (7 ft) above the sidewalk surface to avoid injury to pedestrians. Bushes, trees, and other landscaping should be maintained to prevent encroachment into the sidewalk. Jurisdictions should adopt ordinances requiring local property owners to trim the landscaping they place along their frontage to maintain clear and unobstructed sidewalks. The jurisdictions should provide an inspection procedure or a system of responding to sidewalk encroachment and maintenance complaints.

    Guy wires and utility tie-downs should not be located in or across sidewalksat heights below 2 m (7 ft). When placed adjacent to sidewalks or pedestrianwalkways, the guy wires should be covered with a bright yellow (or otherhigh-visibility) plastic guard to make the wire more visible to pedestrians.Guy wires of any color will not be visible to blind pedestrians and mustnot be located within the pedestrian route. Other obstacles include signalcontroller boxes, awnings, temporary signs, newspaper racks, fire hydrants,and similar items.

    The easiest way to visualize accessibility requirements (grade, cross-slope, and clear width) is with the concept of a continuous passage. Sidewalks must provide a continuous route at a 2 percent maximum cross-slope at a minimum width of 0.9 m (3 ft). This does not mean that 0.9 m (3 ft) is an acceptable sidewalk width, just that at no point shall the level area be less than 0.9 m (3 ft) wide; this applies mainly at obstructions, driveways, and curb ramps.

    Municipalities that do not remove snow on sidewalks should have an ordinance requiring property owners to clear the snow and keep the sidewalks accessible to pedestrians. When the latter is the case, municipalities should educate property owners as to why this is important and have enforcement efforts in place to ensure compliance.

    It is generally preferable to place bus shelters between the sidewalk and the street, or between the sidewalk and adjacent property, so that waiting passengers do not obstruct the flow of pedestrians along the sidewalk. Benches and other street furniture should be placed outside the walking paths to maintain the accessibility of the walkway and to provide good pedestrian service. In addition, curb ramps should be provided at bus stops because it is not always possible for the bus to pull close enough to the curb to deploy a lift.

    Good street lighting improves the visibility, comfort, and security of pedestrians. In urban areas, it is important to light at least the intersections and other pedestrian crossing areas. Lighting is also recommended in areas where there is a high concentration of nighttime pedestrian activity, such as churches, schools, and community centers. Where continuous lighting is provided along wide arterial streets, it is desirable to place the lights along both sides of the street. Continuous streetlights should be spaced to provide a relatively uniform level of light. In shopping districts or in downtown areas with high concentrations of pedestrians, it is desirable to provide pedestrian-level lighting in addition to the street lighting to improve the comfort and security of pedestrians. The preferred pedestrian-level lights are mercury vapor or incandescent. Low-pressure sodium lights may be more energy-efficient; however, they are undesirable because they create considerable color distortion. Pedestrian-level lighting may also be installed in selected areas of pedestrian activity to create a sense of intimacy and place.

    Sidewalks should be built within the public right-of-way or in a sidewalk easement along the right-of-way. This will provide access to the sidewalk for maintenance activities and will prevent the adjacent property owners from obstructing or removing the sidewalk in the future.

    Care must be taken to avoid planting trees or large bushes in the landscape buffer area that will obscure the visibility between a pedestrian attempting to cross or enter a street and an approaching motorist. Trees with large canopies planted between the sidewalk and street should be generally trimmed up to at least 2.4 m (8 ft) high and bushes should be kept to about 762 to 914 mm (30 to 36 in) in height. Trees with large caliper trunks may not be appropriate near intersections and in other situations where they may block visual sight triangles.

    Meandering sidewalks are sometimes used where a wide right-of-way is available and there is a desire to provide a high level of landscaping, such as in a park or along a waterway or other natural feature. It is often believed that meandering sidewalks create a more pleasant walking environment. The reality is that they unnecessarily create a longer walking distance and are inappropriate for sidewalks along a street.

    Sidewalks should be built along both sides of bridges. Pedestrian rails or guard rail are required along the outside of the bridge. On bridges with high speeds, concrete barriers between the travelway and the sidewalk may be considered to shield pedestrians from errant vehicles. However, this adds cost, weight, and width to the bridge, and the transition from barrier to guard rail or curb at each end often creates an awkward transition for pedestrians, who must detour around the barrier to access the bridge sidewalk.

    Rollover curbs should not be used next to sidewalks as they encourage motorists to park on planting strips or sidewalks. They may be problematic for some visually impaired people, since they dont create a definitive edge between the street and adjacent uses.

    Sidewalk Depth: Concrete sidewalks should be built to a minimum depth of 101.6 mm (4 in), and to a minimum depth of 152.4 mm (6 in) at driveways.

    The actual cost of providing sidewalks will be different for each region of the country and varies with the season. Actual bid prices are also influenced by how busy contractors are at the time of construction.

    The cost of constructing sidewalks alone is relatively low; typical bids run between $24 and $36 per meters squared ($20 to $30 a square yard), which roughly translates to $43 to $64 per lineal meter ($12 to $20 per lineal foot) for 1.8-m- (6-ft-) wide sidewalks. Therefore, sidewalks on both sides of the roadway can run roughly between $93,000 and $155,000 per kilometer ($150,000 and $250,000 per mile) (costs from Oregon DOT, 1999).

    Factors to consider when calculating the cost of sidewalks:

    When project costs appear to be escalating due to one or more of the above-listed items, especially retaining walls or acquiring right-of-way, consideration may be given to narrowing the sidewalk in constrained areas as a last resort. The full sidewalk width should be resumed in non-constrained areasthis is preferable to providing a narrow sidewalk throughout, or dropping the project because of one difficult section.

    Tips to Reduce Total Costs:

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    Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System

    75 Walkway Ideas & Designs (Brick, Paver & Flagstone … - December 2, 2018 by admin

    In the picture above natural gray flagstones is the best choice for this lovely Japanese garden. When creating a walkway its more than just a way from here to there make a fun & inviting path to follow.

    A walkway or stepping stone path in your backyard can help you better enjoy your outdoor space. Creating your own DIY walkway design can be accomplished without a whole lot of money and as a weekend project. Here are some of the most popular types of materials used to help you come up with walkway ideas for your own yard.

    Brick Brick is great for outdoor walkways because it offers a distinct look that is attractive and elegant. However, brick is best when used in mild climates and will need to be sealed every few years to help prevent any water penetration.

    Pavers Pavers are commonly used for walkways and paths and can come in many different materials. Concrete, clay tile, brick and stone are often used as pavers making them both durable and low maintenance.

    Stepping stones Regular cut stones can be placed down across your garden or lawn to create a path anywhere you want. These are popular choices for a quick walkway project as they are both inexpensive and easy to do yourself.

    Concrete Concrete slabs, pavers and stamped concrete blocks are often used for constructing durable walkways. Concrete is a favorite choice because they can stand up to adverse weather conditions and be customized to get the look you want. With coloring techniques, molding and stamping you can get a custom look that is unique to your yard.

    65 Patio Design Ideas 50 Deck Design Ideas Outdoor Fire Pit Ideas 35 Gazebo Designs Garden Water Feature Designs

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    75 Walkway Ideas & Designs (Brick, Paver & Flagstone ...

    Quikrete Concrete Crack Seal Natural 1 Qt – Dap Self … - November 21, 2018 by admin

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    Walkways and Steps American Paving Design - November 15, 2018 by admin

    Walkways can be more than paths to specific destinations.They can create elaborate entryways, add ambience to your yard, border your flower beds, or point the way to a casual stroll. Pavers come in a variety of shapes, colors, and textures, which can create remarkable effects.

    that generate visual interest to delight the senses and complement your house and landscaping. For added variation, include steps and terraces along the path.

    Since pavers wont crack or break, you can be assured that your walkway will be a lasting work of art!

    Whether your desires are simple or extravagant, American Paving Design can help you create the walkway for your home. The process is much easier than you might think. Make an appointment with one of our design professionals. We will come to your home, walk you through the options, and create the perfect plan based on your needs and wants.

    To explore what you can do with walkways, visit ourIdea Gallery.

    Originally posted here:
    Walkways and Steps American Paving Design

    Mexboro Concrete Concrete Steps - November 4, 2018 by admin

    Mexboro Concrete manufactures a comprehensive range of L Steps and Winding L Steps. For full details please see below or download our brochure: Steps Brochure

    A highly cost effective method of stairway construction being both quick to install and easy to handle.

    Due to its component form there is no need for costly craneage or on site shuttering.

    Greater Flexibility due to the steps adaptable rise and going suiting both general or disabled requirements in virtually all types of closed stairway applications.

    Strong and Durable with L-Steps supplied in standard lengths from 1.000 metres up to 2.000 metres for a corresponding clear span of 0.800 metres to 1.800 metres between bearing support walls.

    Top tread and riser units are supplied in standard lengths from 1.000 metres to 1.200 metres . Where the overall span for the top tread or riser is required to exceed 1.200 metres then these units can be supplied as two sections. Where a tread is unsupported by an L-Step then the tread unit is to be fully bedded onto a beam and block floor or insitu landing.

    Note: It is recommended that step units are installed to a small fall to prevent excess water from accumulating on the tread part when used externally in association with an anti-slip finish.

    Design performance generally in accordance with BS.8110 1985 and for a distributed load of 4kn/m2 or a point load of 4.5kn as loadings specified in BS.6399 Pt.1. The step system is designed for moderate exposure conditions as defined by BS.8110. Step units to comply with more severe conditons can be manufactured as a special.

    Addtional slip resistance can be achieved for external use by providing an acid etch or exposed aggregate finish to the units.

    Furthermore, slip resistant inserts containing high friction additives can be cast into the stpe making it ideal for areas where wet or greasy conditions are likely to be a problem. Slip resistant inserts are available in different colours with details available on request.

    Standard steps can be used in conjunction with a typical anti slip adhesive tape or proprietary anti slip coating available from most builders merchants.

    Save on valuable floor space by using the Mexboro Winding L-Step system.

    Used in conjunction with the general or disabled L-Step system, winding L-Steps provide an ideal way of constructing a 90 degree return within the stair where a half landing is not required.

    The winding steps are supplied in a standard length to suit a maximum opening of 1.200 metres and the projecting overhang is cuttoff on site to suit.

    To order, simply tell us whether the return is left or right handed and whether they are being used in conjunction with general or diabled L-Step system.

    Simply by varying the amount of bedding from a minimum of 4mm to a maximum of 25mm in certain applications. The joint between the step is to be fully bedded in mortar and a 100mm solid bearing is to be provided as support to each end.

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    Simply by projecting one unit over another to a maximum of 30mm.

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    The following Mexboro Standard L-Step Units show the various rise and going options available for each step type

    General L Step (Ref: LS/A)

    Disabled General L Step (Ref: LS/B)

    Bull Nose L-Steps

    General Architectural Bull Nose L Step (Ref: BNLS/A)

    Disabled Bull Nose L Step (Ref: BNLS/B)

    Public Architectural Bull Nose L Step (Ref: BNLS/C)

    Public Disabled Architectural Bull Nose L Step (Ref:BNLS/D)

    A wide range of finishes are available from standard grey ex-stock, cast stone Portland or Bathstone acid etch, exposed aggregate or a beautiful polished face. Slip resistant inserts are also available.

    A wide variety ofproprietory products are available which can be either be incorporated at the time of manufacture or applied on site. For further details please go to http://www.watco.co.uk

    The required and approved dimensions for stairs as set out in Document K are as follows, but please always check that you have the most up to date guidance and use the link below for more detailed information on the latest UK Building regulations. We strongly recommend that the client checks the usage of any of the above steps with building control for their particular application, prior to ordering.

    Continue reading here:
    Mexboro Concrete Concrete Steps

    PATH LIST Berkeley Path Wanderers Association - October 7, 2018 by admin

    This list contains the street address of the house at the bottom and the top of each of the officially numbered paths in the city. Paths are arranged in numerical order. At the bottom of the list are entries for seven additional paths that appear on our map. Four are in Berkeley but are not part of the numbered system; the other three are in Oakland, close to the Berkeley border.

    Please report any errors or problems with the list to us.

    Berkeley paths,with city path numbers:

    1.Keoncrest Path(Built)1488-1545 Keoncrest Dr. - 1548-1552 Sacramento St.

    2.Terrace Walk(Built)Sutter St. and Del Norte St. - 1042-1100 Shattuck Ave.

    3.Fountain WalkSutter St. and Del Norte St. -Marin Circle west of Del Norte St.

    4.Yosemite Steps751-801 The Alameda -1986-1992 Yosemite Rd.

    5.Indian Rock Path899-901 The Alameda - Shattuck Ave. at Indian Rock Ave.

    6.Mendocino Path853-861 Arlington Ave. - 45-49 San Mateo Rd.

    7.Devon Lane (Lower)Somerset Pl. and Southampton Ave.763-765 -San Diego Rd.Path goes through John Hinkel Park, but is difficult to follow.

    8.Devon Lane (Upper)763-765 San Diego Rd. - 163-168 Southampton Ave.Unbuilt

    9.Black PathSolano Ave. and Contra Costa Ave. - 928 Mendocino Ave.

    10.Laurel Lane767-771 San Diego Rd.dead endUnbuilt

    11.Tunbridge Lane729-735 Arlington Ave - .89-101 Southampton Ave.

    12.Chester Lane117-131 Southampton Ave. - 682-690 San Luis Rd.

    13.Upton LaneSouth of 775 San Diego Rd.north of 768 San Luis Rd.

    14.El Paseo675-679 Vicente Ave. -646-650 The Alameda

    15. Vincente Walk456 Vincente Ave.536-540 -The Alameda

    16.Visalia Steps495-505 Vicente Ave. - 59-69 Menlo Place

    17.Indian Trail715-717 The Alameda - 1890-1900 Yosemite Rd.

    18.Santa Barbara Path597-601 San Luis Rd.- 0572-576 Santa Barbara Rd.

    19.Eunice Steps2015 Eunice St.Eunice St. at Sutter St.

    20. Boynton Walk463-469 Arlington Ave - .450-452 Boynton Ave.

    21. Maryland Walk439-441 Boynton Ave. - 408-416 Vermont Ave.

    22.Florida Walk69-70 Florida Ave. - 458-460 Michigan Ave.

    23. Acacia Walk619-625 Spruce St. - 610-620 Cragmont Ave.

    24.Acacia Steps537-543 Spruce St. - 598-600 Cragmont Ave.

    25.Holmes Path451-457 Kentucky Ave.456-460 Vassar Ave.

    26.North Path555-561 Cragmont Ave. - 580-582 Euclid Ave.

    27. Alta Vista Path731-733 Santa Barbara Ave. - 710-714 Spruce St.

    28.Poplar Path743-747 Spruce St. - 756-760 Cragmont Ave.

    29.Geneva's Path1336-1345 Neilson Ave. -1313 Curtis St. & Gilman Ave.

    30.Halkin Walk (Lower)695-701 Cragmont Ave. - 698-700 Euclid Ave.Unbuilt

    31.Halkin Walk (Upper)696-713 Euclid Ave. - 698-702 Hilldale Ave.

    32.John Muir Path699-701 Grizzly Peak Blvd. - 698-700 Creston Rd.

    33.Rock Walk42-46 Rock Ln.800-810 Euclid Ave.

    35.Vistamont Trail626-641 Vistamont Ave. - 616-619 Vistamont Ave.

    36.Easter Way933-937 Spruce St. - 950 Regal Rd. & Cragmont Park

    37.Pinnacle Path979-981 Regal Rd. - 58-66 Poppy Ln.

    38.Poppy PathPoppy Ln. & Keeler Ave. - 1036-1042 Miller Ave.

    40.Billie Jean Walk911-917 Euclid Ave. - 918-924 Hilldale Ave.

    41.Keeler Path1049 Keeler Ave.1070 Keeler Ave. & 1053 Sterling Ave.

    42.Miller Path West1011-1013 Miller Ave. - 998-1002 Grizzly Peak Blvd.Unbuilt

    43.Latham WalkGrizzly Peak Blvd. and Latham Ln. - 1048-1050 Creston Rd.

    44.Miller Path EastOpposite 982 Grizzly Peak Blvd - 990-1000 Creston Rd.

    45.The Short Cut1125 Walnut St. & Oxford Elementary School - 1128 Oxford St. & Oxford Elementary School

    46.Oak Street Path2335 Oak St. & 1155 Glen Ave. - 1176-1178 Euclid Ave.

    47.Bret Harte Way1099-1101 Euclid Ave. - 1098-1104 Keith Ave.

    48.El Mirador Path (Lower)1125-1133 Euclid Ave. - 1118-1120 Keith Ave.

    50.El Mirador Path (Upper)1119-1123 Keith Ave. - 1112-1116 Cragmont Ave.

    51.Redwood Terrace1147-1149 Euclid Ave. - 1138-1140 Keith Ave.

    52.Martinez Path1147-1159 Keith Ave. - 1146-1148 Cragmont Ave.

    53.Covert Path (Lower)1175-1177 Keith Ave. - 1160-1168 Cragmont Ave.

    54.Covert Path (Upper)1161-1171 Cragmont Ave. - 1138-1146 Keeler Ave.

    55.Twain Way1137-1149 Cragmont Ave. - 1122-1124 Keeler Ave.Unbuilt

    56.Sterling Path1097-1099 Cragmont Ave. - 1070-1072 Keeler Ave.

    57.Bret Harte Path1099-1101 Keeler Ave. - 1082-1084 Sterling Ave.

    58.Cragmont Path1177-1197 Cragmont Ave. - 1166-1170 Keeler Ave.Unbuilt

    59.Eleanor PathDead end1160-1168 - Keith Ave.Unbuilt

    60.Whitaker Path1153-1155 Keeler Ave. - 1138-1144 Sterling Ave.

    61.Stevenson Path (Lower)1179-1181 Keeler Ave. - 1168-1170 Sterling Ave.

    62.Stevenson Path (Upper)1167-1171 Sterling Ave. - 1160-1168 Miller Ave.

    63.Shasta Walk1187-1195 Keeler Ave. - 2885-2887 Shasta Rd.Unbuilt

    64.Shasta Path2901-2905 Shasta Rd. - Shasta Rd. & Miller Ave.

    65.Tilden Path2944-2946 Shasta Rd. - 1246-1250 Grizzly Peak Blvd.

    66.Hill Path1251-1269 Grizzly Peak Blvd. - 80-100 Hill Rd.Unbuilt

    67.Stoddard Path1165-1169 Miller Ave. - 1160-1162 Grizzly Peak Blvd.

    68.Betty Olds PathTwain Ave. & Sterling Ave. - 85-91 Whitaker Ave.

    70.Anne Brower Path1129-1133 Miller Ave. - 65-69 Stevenson Ave.

    71.Path 711099-1105 Sterling Ave. - 1096-1100 Miller Ave.Unbuilt

    72.Ina Coolbrith Path1097-1101 Miller Ave. - 1098-1100 Grizzly Peak Blvd.

    73.Patty Kates Path1088-1100 Woodside Rd. - 1077-1103 Park Hills Rd.

    74.Path 74Wildcat Canyon Rd.Hillview Rd. & Woodside Rd.Unbuilt

    75.Crescent Park Path2-10 The Crescent 56-60 - The Crescent there is also an entrance between 28-40 The Crescent

    76.Fred Herbert Path (South)1130-1138 Woodside Rd. - 1131-1141 Park Hills Rd.

    77.Fred Herbert Path (Middle)1112-1114 Hillview Rd. - 1125-1141 Woodside Rd.

    78.Fred Herbert Path (North)Wildcat Canyon Rd. - 1113-1115 Hillview Rd.

    79.Scott Newhall Path90-100 Hill Rd. - 48-75 Hill Rd.

    80.Wildcat PathWildcat Canyon Rd. - 1149 Hillview Rd. & 1169 Park Hills Rd.

    81.Atlas Path1311-1321 Grizzly Peak Blvd. - 150-156 Hill Rd.

    82.Glendale Path (Upper)Opposite 13 Fairlawn Dr.98-100 Fairlawn Dr.

    83.Glendale Path (Middle)1293-1305 Queens Rd. - 13-15 Fairlawn Dr.

    84.Glendale Path (Lower)1295-1305 Campus Dr. - 1291-1310 Queens Rd.

    85.La Loma PathNorth of 1403 Glendale Ave. - 1310-1320 Campus Dr.

    86.Delmar PathOpposite 1421 Glendale Ave. - 31-35 Delmar Ave.Unbuilt

    87.Parnassus Path3079-3085 Buena Vista Way - 8-9 West Parnassus Ct.Unbuilt

    88.Columbia Path (Upper)1399-1407 Queens Rd. - 17-18 Columbia CircleUnbuilt

    89. Columbia Path (Lower)1365-1373 Campus Dr. - 1398-1400 Queens Rd.Unbuilt

    90.Columbia Walk151-157 Fairlawn Dr. - 1338-1342 Grizzly Peak Blvd.

    91.Grizzly Path185 Hill Rd. & 1371 Grizzly Peak Blvd. - 1328-1336 Summit Rd.Unbuilt

    92.Summit Path1419-1425 Grizzly Peak Blvd. - 1396-1400 Summit Rd.Unbuilt

    93.Avenida Path130-140 Avenida Dr. - 1448-1452 Grizzly Peak Blvd.Unbuilt

    94.Harding PathWest of 1569 Campus Dr. - 1504-1510 Olympus Ave.Unbuilt

    95.Wilson Path1585-1589 Campus Dr. - 1572-1580 Olympus Ave.Unbuilt

    96.Wilson Walk9-14 Wilson Circle -1504-1506 Summit Rd.

    97.Berryman PathBerryman St. & Shattuck Ave.south of 1256 Spruce St.

    98.Hawthorne Steps1409-1423 Scenic Ave. - 1410-1414 Hawthorne Terrace

    99.Rose Glen Alley2235-2241 Rose St.east of 2204 Glen Ave.Unbuilt

    100.Tamalpais PathEunice St. & Euclid Ave.north of 137 Tamalpais Rd.

    101.Northgate Path2754-2760 Shasta Rd. - 90-99 Northgate Ave.

    Follow this link:
    PATH LIST Berkeley Path Wanderers Association

    Concrete Walkways and Sidewalks - September 17, 2018 by admin

    Concrete walkways or sidewalks are more than just a way to get wherever it is you're goingthey can provide much-needed curb appeal to homes and buildings, and they are fast becoming a point of artistic expression by way of a multitude of decorative concrete options.

    While plain gray concrete is still the most often surface installed, as seen on most concrete sidewalks, there are numerous decorative concrete alternatives sure to dress it up, taking your sidewalk from boring to amazing.

    The best part is that most of the options will work just as well on an existing walkway, because the concrete industry has rapidly developed many decorative products that can be applied to existing plain concrete walkways.

    Concrete has become the new material of choice for designers across the U.S. Decorative concrete in all of its stained, colored, molded and personalized glory is popping up in retail stores, trendy restaurants, offices and homes everywhere. Now you can find out why!

    Concrete Walkway Information

    More here:
    Concrete Walkways and Sidewalks

    Rooftop Walkways | Latchways WalkSafe | MSA Latchways … - September 6, 2018 by admin

    WalkSafe rooftop walkways provide a level non-slip surface which can serve as an ideal rooftop demarcation routeprotecting users against hazards when working at height. In highly trafficked areaswhere regular access may be required for maintenance regimes, plant inspection, air quality monitoring, rooflight cleaning, etcWalkSafe distributes the load evenly on to the roof and thus reduces the wear and tear on the roofing system itself. WalkSafe offers a lightweight, practical solution which can be easily installed to replace existing wooden duckboards, scaffolding boards or snow guards.

    WalkSafes flexibility has allowed for the development of a complete range of systemsall with bespoke brackets and componentry:

    WalkSafe walkways can create a totally bespoke system for any type of roof top. With different colour options, the plastic walkway can offer an aesthetically pleasing solutionparticularly for listed/heritage buildings to replace existing roof duckboards or crawling boards.

    2013 saw a major change for the European construction industry in the way in which Manufacturers mark their products. In July, the Construction Products Directive was changed to a Regulation (CPR)which, in-turn, meant that any products complying to a harmonised standard under this Regulation had to bear the CE mark.

    This means that any manufacturer of levelled walkways and treads complying to the harmonised standard EN 516:2006Prefabricated accessories for roofing - Installations for roof accessWalkways, treads and stepsmust ensure these products bear the CE mark.

    To bear the CE mark, and meet EN 516:2006, WalkSafe was tested by an independent notified body for its material construction, slip resistance and deflection under loadindividual Declaration of Performance certificates are available on request through info@latchways.com.

    When specifying a walkway there are a number of other factors you should consider, to find out more about these, download our new technical bulletin today.

    WalkSafe is compatible with all major roof systems and has been approved by the majority of roofing manufacturers. The system is suitable for use on:

    WalkSafe is an integral part of any fall protection plan and is compatible to work with Latchways Constant Force post systems (for personal fall arrest) and VersiRail (for collective protection).

    For fragile roof protection, WalkSafe should be combined with WalkSafe Fall Proof Covers or Rooflight covers.

    The WalkSafe walkway system can be configured in four ways to cover corners and changes of direction:

    View original post here:
    Rooftop Walkways | Latchways WalkSafe | MSA Latchways ...

    Patios, Walkways and Steps Absolute - August 20, 2018 by admin

    Patios

    You may not give careful consideration to what youre walking on but rest assured, we do!

    At Absolute Landscape & Turf Services, Inc. we customize our design to fit your wants, needs, aesthetics, and overall functionality of your outdoor space. Our experts survey both your living area and your lifestyle in order to determine which materials will work best for you. We offer a wide variety of natural stone and interlocking concrete paver materials for you to choose from.

    Absolute Landscape & Turf Services, Inc. holds many certifications for installations such as being certified by the Interlocking Concrete Paving Institute (ICPI).

    Regardless of your choice of materials we have a product that will work for you. Take a look at some of our portfolio images, and contact us to get started on your project today!

    The first impression of your home originates from your curb appeal. The color and material choices that are selected can enhance the overall beauty as well as the landscape surrounding the front of your home.

    Whether you need to replace your existing walkway or design a new one, Absolute can provide multiple designs options that will dramatically change the appearance of your property and potentially increase resale value. We offer a wide variety of natural stone and interlocking concrete pavers in a wide range of colors for our clients to choose from that will peacefully coexist with your landscape all while serving both form and function.

    Absolute Landscape & Turf Services, Inc. holds many certifications for installations like these such as being certified by the Interlocking Concrete Paving Institute (ICPI).

    Take a look at the featured low maintenance, high quality projects below our team has constructed, and contact us today.

    See the original post here:
    Patios, Walkways and Steps Absolute

    Pictures of garden pathways and walkways | DIY - August 20, 2018 by admin

    Stone and Gravel Combo

    A traditional gravel path gets an update thanks to decorative stone chips and staggered Eden dimension stones that provide a landing spot and engage the eye. Stone edging keeps the gravel in line.

    Crushed rock interspersed with bluestone lends appealing layers of visual texture to this path. The design is anchored by a repetition of rectangular forms.

    Freeform slabs of Tennessee fieldstone and Pennsylvania bluestone create a rustic pathway that enhances the cottage air of the house and grounds. Colorful perennials and groundcovers are sprinkled along the edges.

    Highlands granite steppingstones undulate across a fescue lawn and beckon toward the gate in the distance. Mazus reptans, with purple blossoms that add depth and dimension to the setting, line the path on either side.

    Oversized steppingstones function like a stairway as this path ascends along the sloped garden. A custom stone bench provides a spot to perch and take in the plantings and wildlife.

    Pavers set on the diagonal draw the eye straight toward the entrance of this home. Dwarf monkey grass planted between them emphasizes their diamond pattern and gives the path dimension.

    A short but striking path leads to a water feature in the center of this garden. The modern, minimalist pavers contrast with the traditional style of the plantings.

    A neglected side yard became a garden in its own right, thanks to an intricate flagstone path that connects the front yard to the back. The alle of Italian cypress trees helps to elongate the space visually, while the stonework pattern keeps it from feeling too narrow.

    Intricate gravel paths edged in brick wind through this garden, which evokes classic parterre designs. Fragrant flowers, herbs and vegetables provide moments of discovery along the way.

    Bluestone chips fill the joints between these minimalist, modern steppers, which allow the homeowner to reach the side of the house from the garage. Because the path is in the front yard, plantings help screen it.

    Concrete paths entwine at the front entrance of this sleek and modern home. Their curvaceous shape takes the edge off the homes hard angles and fosters a more inviting atmosphere.

    Decomposed granite (essentially, granite worn down into particles) is compacted into a rustic Southwestern-style path. Small boulders along the edge enhance the desert-like feel.

    A fieldstone path leads the gaze away from a brightly colored home and cedar pergola, punctuated by sculptures, specimen plants and other pockets of visual interest along the way. Blue spruces frame the paths entry point, while layered plantings create a sense of intrigue about the garden and grounds beyond.

    French limestone and concrete combine for a spacious path that ties together the public and private sides of the home. Freeform tumbles of plantings around and between the stones lend a casual feel.

    A wet laid full-range bluestone path anchors this formal garden. Its crossway shape connects the driveway, fireplace area, lawn and an entertainment patio.

    Bluestone flagging, reclaimed from Central Park in New York City, creates a strong, linear path that meanders beneath a log-and-stone archway.

    Because the space that encloses this path is a slim 4 feet across, Pennsylvania bluestone-and-brick steppers turned on the diagonal make it appear larger. The placement also provides more room to tuck in plantings.

    This irregular bluestone path provides a transition between the front yard and backyard. Creeping thyme and more flowering plants fill the gaps between the stones and give off an appealing scent underfoot.

    Boxwood shrubs flank square brick stepping stones placed in a checkerboard pattern along this side lawn. The composition creates an engaging mix of formality and playfulness.

    Large, field-collected Pennsylvania steppingstones are sunken in a grassy corridor to create a mosaic effect. The path has a slightly Old World feel that suits the dreamy, enchanted-forest setting.

    Pavers in this pathway create the effect of natural stone. Bluestone slate and boulders add to the realistic feel.

    Organically flowing paths, fashioned from landscape timbers, wood chips and steppingstones, transform a bland, little-used yard into a lovely retreat. The paths bridge the front and rear of the home, linking them with the deck and leading to street access via the woods. A Goshen stone slab spans the stream and helps to protect fish from predators.

    Antique brick steppingstones bisect this lawn. The classic herringbone pattern is set in a series of squares that reinforces the strong geometric design.

    Perfect for modern landscapes and slim side yards, this path features 18"x18" architectural slabs laid as stepping stones. Ground cover plantings eventually will grow into the space between the slabs.

    A casual entry path points visitors toward this homes side door, which serves as the main entrance. Extra-thick, irregular natural cleft flagstones are softened by creepers and plantings that can withstand foot traffic.

    In this gently winding side-garden path, 24 x 36 bluestone steppers sit atop a bed of stone dust. Plantings soften the path; the curves help to spark curiosity about the area that lies beyond.

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    Pictures of garden pathways and walkways | DIY

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